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Vertebrates of Ontario and Catalogue of 
Specimens in the Biological Section 

of the Provincial Museum 




Printed and Published by L. K. CAMERON, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty 
OCT 5 1976 

WARWICK BROS & RUTTER, Limited, Pnnters, 


Minister of Education: Epa Sey 

BLT ve mis 

Sir,—The following déstiptive check list and catglogue of fishes, 
has been prepared under yoty ‘authority .and direction by Mr ©] W- 
Nash, Lecturer on Biology for “the Ontario: Department of Agriculture. 

There is reason to believe, th t. the presentation of these lists will 
greatly facilitate the study of anim: L life on. the. part of our people and 
especially, of the young, whether they are. pursuing systematic studies 
in natural science or merely from a desire to acquire casual information 
relating to the subject. 

The economic importance of knowledge concerning all forms of 
life is especially valuable in this Province, where the great bulk of our 
wealth is drawn direct from the hands of nature. Unfortunately too 
little attention has been paid to this subject in the past, with the result 
that many of our most valuable forms of life are threatened with exter- 
mination. This is particularly the case with our fish, many species of 
which have entirely disappeared from our waters, while others formerly 
so abundant as to have been within the reach of every person are now 
luxuries only obtainable by the rich. 

Our lakes, with the application of scientific methods, could undoubt- 
edly be made to produce an unfailing supply of cheap and wholesome 
food. This however, will only be done when those engaged in the fisheries 
have a better knowledge of the habits of the fish they capture, and the 
general public are more fully informed of the value of this important 
national asset. 




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in 2007 with funding from 
Microsoft Corporation 



In this work the writer has endeavored to give concise descriptions 
of ali the fish known to inhabit the waters of the Province of Ontario. 

The classification and sequence of groups adopted is that of Jordan 
and Evermann, to whom I am also chiefly indebted for the technical des- 

In the description of species the expressions ‘‘head 4’’ or ‘‘depth 4”’ 
mean that the length of the head in one case, or the greatest depth of 
the body in the other, is contained 4 times in the length of the fish 
measured from the tip of the snout to the end of the last caudal vertebra, 
the caudal fin being not included. The size of the eye and the length of 
snout and other head parts are compared with the length of the side of 
the head, unless otherwise stated. ; thus ‘‘eye 5’’ means that the horizon- 
tal diameter of the eye is 1-5 the length of the head, ‘‘scales 5-64-7’’ 
means that there are 5 rows of scales between the base of the dorsal fin 
and the lateral line (the scale in the lateral line excluded), 64 oblique tran- 
verse series crossing the lateral line and 7 horizontal series between the 
lateral line and the base of the anal or the vent. 

The fin formule are shortened as much as possible; thus ‘‘D. 10,”’ 
“D. 1V,°9,” or ““D. VIII-13”” means that in the first case the fish has 
a single dorsal fin of 10 soft or articulated rays; in the second case a 
single dorsal fin of 4 spines and g soft rays; and the last indicates a fish 
with two dorsal fins, the first composed of 8 spines and the second of 13 

Spines are always indicated in roman letters and rays in arabic 

The measurements given are intended to apply to the average of 
mature fishes. Young fishes usually have the depth less, the head and eye 
larger and the mouth smaller in proportion than adult examples of the 
same species. 

The coloration and marking of fishes is extremely variable, no two 
individuals being exactly alike; and not only so, but each individual 
changes its color from time to time in accordance with its surroundings. 
All color descriptions as given herein are intended to apply to the normal 
adult in its hightest development as found in the waters to which it is 
best adapted. 

€) WoNASH: 





PISCES (The Fishes). 

The Fishes may be defined as cold-blooded vertebrates, adapted for 
life in the water, breathing by means of gills attached to bony or 
cartilaginous gill arches; having the skull well developed and with a 
lower jaw; with limbs present and developed as fins, or rarely wanting 
through atrophy; with shoulder girdle present, furcula shaped, curved 
forward and with the sides connected below; with pelvic bones present ; 
having the exoskeleton developed as scales or bony plates, or horny 
appendages, sometimes obsolete, and with the median line of body 
with one or more fins composed of cartilaginous rays connected by mem- 

The Lampreys differ so widely from the true fishes, having no jaws, 
no limbs and no trace of the bones to which limbs should be hung that 
they are properly excluded from consideration as fishes. I have, however, 
included them here, as they are popularly believed to be fish and are of 
economic importance to our fishery interests from the fact that they 
destroy vast numbers of valuable food fish. 



Class MARSIPOBRANCHII. (The Lampreys.) 

Skeleton cartilaginous; the skull imperfectly developed, not separate 
from the vertebral column. No true jaws, no limbs, no shoulder girdle, 
no pelvic elements, no ribs. Gills in the form of fixed sacs, without 
branchial arches, six or more in number on each side. Nostril single 
median, Mouth sub-inferior, suctorial, more or less circular. Heart 
without arterial bulb. Alimentary canal straight, simple, without cecal 
appendages, pancreas, or spleen. Vertical fins with feeble rays, usually 
continuous round the tail. Naked, eel-shaped animals inhabiting cool 
waters. They undergo a metamorphosis, the young being often quite 
unlike the adult. 

Order HYPEROARTII. (The Lampreys.) 

Nasal duct a blind sac, not penetrating the palate. 


Body eel-shaped, subcylindrical anteriorly, compressed behind; mouth 
nearly circular, armed with horny teeth which rest on papilla; gill open- 
ings seven, arranged in a row along the side of the “‘chest’’; lips present, 
usually fringed; nostril on top of head, just in front of eyes; dorsal fin 
more or less deeply divided by a notch; the posterior part commonly con- 
tinuous with the anal around the tail; intestines with a spiral valve; eggs 

The Lampreys undergo a metamorphosis, the larve of all species 
being toothless and having the eyes rudimentary. 

They attach themselves to fishes and feed by scraping off the flesh 
with their rasp-like teeth. 


Lampreys with the supraoral lamina armed with two or threé separate 
teeth, pointed and close together, not forming a crescent-shaped plate; 
anterior lingual tooth divided by a median groove. The dorsal fin notched 
but not separated into two portions. 

Petromyzon marinus unicolor. 
Common in Lake Ontario, where it is very destructive to the larger fishes. 

C. W.N. 



from ti 
no pel 
unlike th 

Nasal ste palate. 


Body eel-shaped, subcylindrical anteriorly, compressed behind ; mouth 
nearly circular, armed with horny teeth which rest on papilla; gill open- 
ings seven, arranged in a row along the side of the ‘‘chest’’; lips present, 
usually fringed; nostril on top of head, just in front of eyes; dorsal fin 
more or less deeply divided by a notch; the posterior part commonly con- 
tinuous with the anal around the tail; intestines with a spiral valve; eggs 

The Lampreys undergo a metamorphosis, the larve of all species 
being toothless and having the eyes rudimentary. 

They attach themselves to fishes and feed by scraping off the flesh 
with their rasp-like teeth. 


Lampreys with the supraoral lamina armed with two or threé separate 
teeth, pointed and close together, not forming a crescent-shaped plate ; 
anterior lingual tooth divided by a median groove. The dorsal fin notched 
but not separated into two portions. 

1. a Ce 


(1) Silver Lamprey. Lamper Eel. 

(Icthyomyzon concolor.) 

Body rather stout, compressed posteriorly. The head is broad and 
the buccal disk large, with its edges not conspicuously fringed. The tooth 
on the front of the tongue is divided into two parts by a median groove, 
and the dorsal fin is continuous but deeply notched. The maxillary tooth 
is bicuspid; the teeth on the disk are in about four series and all small. 
The tooth-bearing bone of the lower part of the mouth has seven cusps. 
There are fifty-one muscular impressions from gills to vent. 

Colour bluish silvery, sometimes with blackish mottlings. Above each 
gill opening there is a small bluish blotch. Length about twelve inches. 

The Silver Lamprey is abundant in the Great Lakes, usually in deep 
water, but it runs up the small streams to spawn in the spring. It is a 
most destructive parasite on the large commercial fishes, fixing itself to 
their bodies by means of its suctorial disk and causing deep ulcerated 
wounds at the point of attachment, which very frequently result in death. 

When spawning they form nests in the bed of the stream among 
cobble stones and pebbles; in these the eggs are deposited, after which 
the parent fish all die. After emerging from the eggs the larva burrow 
in the mud or sand near the margin of the stream and there remain in 
the larval condition, blind and toothless for a long period, sometimes until 
they have attained a length of eight inches. 


Dorsal fin either notched or divided into two parts, the posterior part 
continuous with the anal around the tail; supraoral lamina broad, cres- 
centic, with a large obtuse cusp at each end and sometimes a minute 
median cusp; lingual teeth small, with a crescentic toothed edge, the 
median denticle enlarged; buccal disk small, with few teeth which are 
never tricuspid. 

The genus Lampetra is best distinguished from Petromyzon by the 
structure of its so-called maxillary tooth, which has the form of a crescent 
shaped plate with terminal cusps and sometimes an additional median 
cusp. In Petromyzon this bony plate is short and contains two or three 
teeth which are very closely placed. 


(2) Brook Lamprey. 
(Lampetra wilderi.) 

The high dorsal fin is divided into two parts by a deep notch. Several 
of the teeth on the side of the buccal disk are bicuspid and the rest simple. 
The mandibulary plate is nearly straight and has eight or ten cusps of 
nearly equal size. There are sixty-seven muscular impressions from gills 
to vent. In the spring a prominent anal papilla is present. The head is 
larger than the space occupied by the gill openings. Eyes large. Mouth 
moderately small. Lips conspicuously fringed with papilla. The teeth 
change considerably with age; young specimens have no median cusp on 
the maxillary plate. 

Colour, bluish black above; lower parts silvery. Length about eight 

This Lamprey ranges through the Great Lakes region, ascending 
small streams in the spring to spawn. It clings to stones and clods of 
earth while depositing its ova, and is believed by many persons to die 
after spawning. 

Like the rest of the family, it is parasitic on other fish. 

I am not positive as to the occurrence of this species in our waters, 
though I have often taken a small Lamprey in the northern and western 
streams of Ontario and in the rivers of Manitoba which I believe to be the 
Brook Lamprey. 

Class PISCES. (The Fishes.) 

The Fishes may be defined as cold-blooded vertebrates adapted for 
life in the water, breathing by means of gills which are attached to bony 
or cartilaginous gill arches; the gills persistent throughout life; having 
the skull well developed and provided with a lower jaw; the limbs present 
and developed as fins, rarely wanting through atrophy; shoulder girdle 
present, furcula shaped, curved forward below; pelvic bones present ; 
exoskeleton developed as scales, bony plates, or horny appendages or 
sometimes entirely wanting, and with the median line of body with one or 
more fins composed of cartilaginous rays connected by membrane. 

Subclass TELEOSTOMI. (True Fishes.) 

Skeleton usually bony, sometimes cartilaginous. Skull with sutures; 
membrane bones (opercle, preopercle, etc.) present; gill openings a single 
slit on each side; gills with their outer edges free, their bases attached to 
bony arches, normally four pairs of these, the fifth pair being typically 
modified into tooth-bearing lower pharyngeals; median and paired fins 
developed, the latter with distinct rays. Ova small. Heart developed, 
divided into an auricle, ventricle and arterial bulb. Lungs imperfectly 
developed or modified to form a swim bladder or entirely absent. 


Under this head are now included the Ganoids and the Teleosts. The 
former group is chiefly composed of extinct forms. While many of its 
representatives are extremely dissimilar to the bony fishes, there is a 
gradual series of transitions, and between the Cycloganoidea of the 
Ganoids and the Clupeoids and others of the true Teleosts, the resemblance 
is much greater than that between the Cycloganoidea and many other 
Ganoids. The Ganoids are in fact the most generalized of the true fishes, 
those nearest the stock from which the Teleosts on the one hand and the 
Dipnoi, on the other, have sprung. 

Series GANOIDEI. (Ganoid Fishes.) 

The name Ganoidei was first used by Agassiz for those fishes which 
are armed with bony plates, instead of regular cycloid or ctenoid scales. 
Later the group has been restricted to those fishes thought to show more 
or less reptilian or batrachian affinities, and especially affinities with the 
mailed fishes of the Devonian and Carboniferous ages. The group is a 
heterogeneous one and one scarcely susceptible of definition. In some of 
the Ganoids the air bladder still retains its original function, a lung. The 
existence of the solid optic chiasma, the presence of several valves in the 
arterial bulb, and of a more or less developed spiral valve in the intestine, 
distinguish the living Ganoids from all Teleosts. 

Order SELACHOSTOMI. (Paddlefishes.) 

Notochord persistent, the division into vertebrae imperfect Meso- 
coracoid developed; no symplectic bone; premaxillary forming border of 
mouth; no suboperculum, preoperculum, nor interoperculum; mesoptery- 
gium distinct ; basihyals and superior ceratohyal not ossified ; interclavicles 
present; maxillaries obsolete; branchihyals cartilaginous. 


Body fusiform, little compressed, covered with mostly smooth skin. 
Snout prolonged, expanded into a thin flat blade, the inner portion formed 
by the produced nasal bones, the outer portion with a reticulate bony 
framework, the whole somewhat flexible. Mouth broad terminal, but 
overhung by the spatulate snout, its border formed by the premaxillaries, 
the maxillaries being obsolete; jaws with many fine deciduous teeth; simi- 
lar teeth on palatines; no tongue. Spiracles present. Operculum rudi- 
mentary, its skin produced behind into a long acute flap; no pseudo- 
branchiz, or opercular gill; gills four and one-half; gill rakers long, in a 
double series on each arch, the series divided by a broad membrane; gill 


membranes considerably connected but free from isthmus; a single broad 
branchiostegal. No barbels. Nostrils double at base of blade. Lateral 
line continuous, its lower margin with short branches. Dorsal fin well 
back, of soft rays only; anal similar, rather further back; tail heterocercal, 
the lower caudal lobe well developed, so that the fin is nearly equally 
forked; sides of the bent portion of the tail armed with small rhombic 
plates, caudal fin with fulcra. Pectorals moderate, placed low, ventrals 
abdominal, many rayed. Air bladder cellular, not bifid; pyloric ceca) in 
the form of a short branching leaf-like organ; intestine with a spiral valve. 


Gill rakers exceedingly numerous, very slender; spatula broad. 
Caudal fulcra thirteen to twenty in number, of moderate size. Characters 
otherwise those of the family. 

(3) Paddlefish. 
(Polyodon spathula.) 

The body of the Paddlefish is fusiform, with the snout much produced, 
spatulalike. Body scaleless, covered with smooth skin; mouth broad, 
terminal; teeth in jaws very numerous and fine; deciduous; spiracles with 
a minute barbel. The operculum is rudimentary, its flap of skin long, 
reaching almost or quite to the ventral fins; pseudorbanchiz absent; gill 
arches five, the last rudimentary; gill rakers long and in a double series 
on each arch; gill membranes connected, free from the isthmus; nostrils 
double, situated at base of blade; a continuous lateral line from upper part 
of head along dorsal outline to tail; eye small; dorsal and anal fins far 
back, composed of soft rays, nearly opposite ; tail heterocercal, well forked ; 
sides of the bent portions of the tail armed with rhombic plates. The 
pectoral fins are of moderate size and placed low; ventrals many rayed, 

This peculiar fish cannot well be confounded with any other species 
found in North American waters. It takes its name from its remarkable 
snout, which is produced into a long spatulalike process, covered with an 
intricate network and having very thin flexible edges. 

In the Great Lakes the Paddlefish occurs but rarely, its centre of 
abundance being the larger streams of the Mississippi Valley; there are, 
however, two records of its capture in Ontario waters; one taken near 
Sarnia, now mounted and in the Fisheries Museum at Ottawa; the other, 
a fine specimen taken at Spanish River, Georgian Bay, in 1886, is also 
mounted and in the office of the Bureau of, Fisheries, Toronto. 

The flesh of this fish is coarse, but considered by some to be fairly 
good for table use. Of its habits little seems to be known, except that 
it is somewhat sluggish and prefers water with a muddy bottom. It grows 
to a length of five or six feet and specimens in the south have been taken 
weighing one hundred and fifty pounds. 


Order CHONDROSTEI. (The Sturgeons.) 

Notochord persistent, the cartilaginous vertebrae imperfectly devel- 
open. A mesocoracoid. No symplectic bone. Maxillary present. No 
suboperculum or preoperculum. Interoperculum present. Mesopterygium 
distinct. Interclavicles present. Basihyals and superior ceratohyal not 
ossified. Branchihyals osseous. This group is composed of the single 
family Acipenseride, represented in our Province by one species. 


Body elongate, subcylindrical, armed with five rows of bony bucklers, 
each with a median carina which terminates in a spine, which sometimes 
becomes obsolete with age; a median dorsal series and a lateral and 
abdominal series on each side, the abdominal series sometimes deciduous ; 
between these the skin is rough with small irregular plates. Head covered 
with bony plates joined by sutures; snout produced, depressed, conical or 
subspatulate. Mouth small, inferior, protractile, with thickened lips. No 
teeth. Four barbels in a transverse series on the lower side of the snout 
in front of the mouth. Eyes small; nostrils large, double, in front of eye. 
Gills, four; an accessory opercular gill; gill membranes united to the 
isthmus; no branchiostegals. Maxillary distinct from the premaxillary. 
Head covered with bony plates united by sutures. Fin rays slender, all 
articulated, vertical fins with fulcra. Pectorals placed low; ventrals many 
rayed, behind middie of body; dorsal placed posteriorly; anal somewhat 
behind it, similar; tail heterocercal, the lower caudal lobe developed, the 
upper lobe of the tail covered with rhomboid scales. Air bladder large, 
simple, connected with the cesophagus. Pseudobranchiz small or obso- 
lete. Stomach without blind sac; intestine with a spiral valve; pancreas 
divided into pyloric appendages. 

Large fishes, feeding on small animals, sucked in through the tube- 
like mouth. Most of the species are migratory. 

The changes with age are considerable, the snout in particular becomes 
much shorter and less acute and the roughness of the scales is greatly 
diminished; the ventral shields sometimes disappear altogether. 


Snout subconical, more or less depressed below the level of the fore- 
head. A small spiracle over the eye. Caudal peduncle moderately long, 
deeper than broad, the rows of bony bucklers distinct to the base of the 
caudal fin. Tail not produced into a filament, its tip surrounded by the 
caudal rays. Gill rakers small, narrowed or lanceolate. Pseudobranchiz 


(4) Lake Sturgeon. Rock Sturgeon. 
(Acipenser rubicundus. ) 

Dark olive above; sides paler or reddish often with irregular blackish 
spots. Body rather elongate. Snout slender and long in the young, 
becoming quite blunt with age. The shields are large, rough, with 
strongly hooked spines, becoming later comparatively smooth; ventral 
shields growing smaller with age and finally deciduous. 

The fishermen make a distinction between the young and the old of 
this species, calling the former Rock Sturgeon and the older fish Lake 
Sturgeon. There is, however, but one Sturgeon in our waters; the differ- 
ence in the size and shape of the snout and in the number and development 
of the spines between the immature fish and the adult is sometimes very 
great, hence the idea that two species are found. 

The Lake Sturgeon is found in the Great Lakes and all the larger 
rivers falling into them, and is a food fish of considerable commercial 
importance, its flesh being used either fresh or dried and smoked. From 
its roe, the delicacy known as caviare is made. This fish attains a large 
size, specimens six feet in length and weighing one hundred pounds or 
more being not uncommon, though of late years they have decreased 
rapidly in both number and size. 

The spawning season extends from the end of May to the beginning 
of July, during which period the fish run from the lakes up the rivers for 
a considerable distance for the purpose of depositing their ova. 

Order RHOMBOGANOIDEA. (The Gar Pikes.) 

Parietals in contact; pterotic, basis cranii, and anterior vertebre 
simple; symplectics present. Mandible with coronoid, angular, articular 
and dentary bones; third superior pharyngeal small, lying on fourth, upper 
basihyal wanting; maxillary transversely divided. A cartilaginous meso- 
coracoid. Vertebrz opisthoccelian, that is, connected by ball and socket 
joints, the concavity in each vertebra being behind. Pectoral fins with 
mesopterygium and five other basal elements. Tail heterocercal. Air 
bladder lung-like, single, connecting with the dorsal side of the cesophagus. 


Body elongate, subcylindrical, covered with hard, rhombic ganoid 
scales or plates, which are imbricated in oblique series running downward 
and backward. Both jaws more or less elongate, spatulate or beak-like, 
the upper jaw projecting beyond the lower; premaxillary forming most of 
the margin of the upper jaw; the maxillary transversely divided into several 
pieces. Lower jaw composed of as many pieces as in reptiles; coronoid 
present. Both jaws with an outer series of small teeth, followed by one 

(‘snpunoiqns uasuadwy ) “woesinyg exe] 

(‘snasso snajsosida’y) “Ysyaey 


or two series of large teeth, besides which on the jaws vomer and palatines 
are a series of small, close-set, rasp-like teeth. Large teeth of the jaws 
conical in form, pointed and striate, placed at right angles to the jaw. 
Pharyngeals with rasp-like teeth. Tongue toothless, short, broad, emar- 
ginate, free at tip. External bones of skull very hard and rugose. Eyes 
small. Nostrils near the end of the upper jaw. An accessory gill on the 
inner side of the opercle. Pseudobranchize present. No spiracles. Gills, 
four, a slit behind the fourth. Branchiostegals, three. Gill membranes 
somewhat connected, free from the isthmus. Gill rakers very short. Air 
bladder cellular, lung-like, somewhat functional. Fins with fulcra; dorsal 
fin short, rather high, posterior, nearly opposite the anal, which is similar 
in form; tail heterocercal, in the young produced as a filament beyond the 
caudal fin; caudal convex; ventrals nearly midway between pectorals and 
anal; pectorals and ventrals moderate, few rayed. Stomach not cecal; 
pyloric appendages numerous. Spiral valve of intestines rudimentary. 
Fresh water fishes of sluggish habits, but voracious and destructive to 
smaller fishes. The flesh is tough and rank, useless as food. 

These fishes are of much interest from their relationship to extinct 
ganoid genera, many of which are placed in this family. 

Genus, LEPISOSTEUS. (Gar PiKes.) 

Upper jaw with an outer series of small, sharp, even teeth, 
then a series of large teeth, some of the anterior row being usually 
movable; next comes a series of fine teeth, in one row in front, 
becoming a band behind. In some species the inner row of these 
teeth contains larger ones; next the vomerine teeth, also in a long band, 
and posteriorly a palatine band. These bands on the roof of the mouth are 
frequently somewhat confluent or irregular. In young specimens some of 
the palatine teeth are often enlarged, these sometimes forming regular 
series. Lower jaw with an outer series of small teeth, next a series of large 
teeth, next again a broad band of fine teeth on each side. Each of the 
large teeth fitting into a depression in the opposite jaw. 


(5) Gar-fish. Gar Pike.  Bill-fish. 

(Lepisosteus osseus.) 

Body elongate, subcylindric. The jaws greatly produced, the upper 
being the longer. Teeth in the jaws rather fine, sharp and stiff; a single 
inner row of large teeth, and an outer row of small teeth on each side. 
The snout is more than twice as long as the rest of the head. 

a7 COO Na Ole Vi. Oc ule-e lO. .SCales, (62 stor Os. 


Colour, greenish above ; the sides silvery and the belly whitish ; numer- 
ous round, dark spots on the sides, most distinct posteriorly and most 
conspicuous in the young, becoming obscure with age. Very young indi- 
viduals have a blackish lateral band. Vertical fins with numerous round 
dark spots. 

The Gar-fish is generally distributed from the upper St. Lawrence 
River through the Great Lakes and their tributaries to the head of Lake 
Huron. I have no records from Lake Superior; and it is probably most 
abundant in Lake Erie. It is said to attain a length of six feet and may 
possibly do so in southern waters, but I have never seen one taken in this 
Province which would exceed four feet. As a food fish it is valueless, its 
flesh being considered unwholesome. It spawns in late spring or early 
summer, running up the larger streams for that purpose. 


(6) Short-nosed Gar. 
(Lepisosteus platostomus. ) 

Colour similar to L. osseus, but rather darker; from that species it 
may readily be distinguished by its shorter snout, which even in young 
specimens does not much exceed the rest of the head in length. Maximum 
length, about three feet. 

D:, 85 Ax) 8; Ve, 6:2 Scales on lateral lime; about.56: 

The Short-nosed Gar occurs sparingly in Lake Erie, its centre of 
abundance being in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys. 

Like the common Garfish, it is a voracious, destructive creature and 
of no value as a food fish. 

Order CYCLOGANOIDEA. (The Bowfins. ) 

Parietals in contact. Pterotic, basis cranii and anterior vertebra 
simple. Mandible with opercular and coronoid. Maxillary not trans- 
versely segmented, bordering the mouth. Third superior pharyngeal 
lying on enlarged fourth. Upper basihyal wanting. Vertebre amphiccelian 
the anterior not modified. Pectoral fins with mesopterygium and eight 
other elements. Air bladder cellular and lung-like. 

Famity AMIIDAE. (THE BowFimns.) 

Body oblong, compressed behind, terete anteriorly. Head subcon- 
ical, anteriorly bluntish, slightly depressed, its superficial bones corru- 
gated and very hard, scarcely covered by skin. Snout short, rounded; 
lateral margins of upper jaw formed by the maxillaries, which are divided 


by a longitudinal suture. Jaws nearly even in front; cleft of the mouth 
nearly horizontal, extending beyond the small eye; lower jaw broad, the 
rami well separated; between them a broad, bony plate, with radiating 
stria, its posterior edge free; jaws each with an outer series of conical 
teeth, behind which in the lower is a band of rasp-like bands of small 
teeth on the vomer and pterygoids; palatines with a series of larger pointed 
teeth; premaxillaries not protractile; tongue thick, scarcely free at tip. 
Nostrils well separated, the anterior with a short barbel; suborbital very 
narrow; a bony plate covering the cheek, similar to the plates on the top 
of the head; operculum with a broad dermal border. Branchiostegals ten 
to twelve. No pseudobranchie nor opercular gill; no spiracle; gills, four, 
a slit behind the fourth; gill membranes not connected; free from the 
isthmus. Two peculiar, long, lanceolate obliquely striate appendages on 
each side of the isthmus, projecting backward and covered by the branchio- 
stegal rays, the anterior wholly adnate to the isthmus, the posterior free 
behind. Isthmus scaleless. Gill rakers stoutish, very short. Scales of 
moderate size, rather firm, cycloid, with a membranous border. Lateral 
line present. Dorsal fin long and low, nearly uniform, the posterior rays 
not much higher than the others; its insertion in front of the middle line 
of the body, opposite the end of the pectoral. Tail somewhat heterocercal 
(more so in the young), convex behind, no fulcra. Anal few, short and 
low. Pectoral and ventral fins short and rounded, the ventrals nearer 
anal than pectorals. Vertebrae amphiccelian or double concave, as usual 
among fishes, none of them specially modified. Abdominal and caudal 
parts of the vertebral column subequal. Air bladder cellular, bifid in 
front, lung-like, connected by a glottis with the pharynx and capable of 
assisting in respiration. Stomach with a blind sac; no pyloric ceca. No 
closed oviduct. Intestine with a rudimentary spiral valve. 

Only one species of this family is known among living fishes, but 
several fossil genera are commonly referred to it. 

Genus AMIA. (Bowrins.) 

Body oblong, compressed behind, terete anteriorly ; head subconical, 
anteriorly bluntish, slightly depressed, its superficial bones corrugated and 
very hard, scarcely covered by skin; snout short, rounded; lateral margins 
of upper jaw formed by the maxillaries, which are divided by a longitudinal 
suture; jaws nearly even in front; cleft of the mouth nearly horizontal, 
extending beyond the small eye; lower jaw broad, U-shaped, the rami 
well separated; between them a broad, bony plate, with radiating strie, 
its posterior edge free; jaws each with an outer series of conical teeth, 
behind which in the lower is a band of rasp-like teeth ; bands of small teeth 
on the vomer and pterygoids; palatines with a series of larger, pointed 
teeth; premaxillaries not protractile; tongue thick, scarcely free at tip; 
nostrils well separated, the anterior with a short barbel; suborbital very 


narrow; a bony plate covering the cheek, similar to the plates on the top 
of the head; operculum with a broad dermal border ; branchiostegals ten 
to twelve; no pseudobranchie or opercular gill; no spiracle; gills four, a 
slit behind the fourth; gill membranes not connected, free from the isth- 
mus; two peculiar long lanceolate, olbiquely striate appendages on each 
side of the isthmus, projecting backward and covered by the branchio- 
stegal rays, the anterior wholly adnate to the isthmus, the posterior free 
behind; isthmus scaleless; gill rakers stoutish, very short; scales of mod- 
erate size, rather firm, cycloid, with a membranous border ; lateral line 
present; dorsal fin long and low, nearly uniform; the posterior rays not 
much higher than the others; tail somewhat heterocercal (more so in the 
young), convex behind; no fulerums; anal fin short and low; pectoral and 
ventral fins short and rounded, the ventrals nearer anal than pectorals; 
vertebrae amphiccelian or double concave, as usual among fishes, none of 
them specially modified; abdominal and caudal parts of the vertebral 
column subequal; air bladder cellular, bifid in front, lung-like, connected 
by a glottis with the pharynx, and capable of assisting in respiration, 
stomach with a blind sac; no pyloric ceca; no closed oviduct; intestine 
with a rudimentary spiral valve. 

(7) Dogfish. Bowfin. Mudfish. 

(Amia calva.) 

Dark olive or blackish above, paler or sometimes bright green below , 
sides with traces of dark greenish reticulations; lower jaw and gular plate 
often with round blackish spots; fins mostly dark, somewhat mottled. 
Male with a round black spot at base of caudal fin above, this is sur- 
rounded by an orange or yellow border; in the female this is very faint, 
or more often wanting. 

Lateral line nearly median, directed slightly upward at each end. 
Scales on lateral line, about sixty-five. 

De SOR, Ans shOntomlcn Vera. 

The female Dogfish is larger than the male, sometimes reaching a 
length of twenty-four inches, while the male rarely exceeds eighteen. 

This fish is found generally distributed in sluggish ~-d weedy waters 
from the upper St. Lawrence to the head of Lake Huron. I have no 
records for Lake Superior. It is one of the most voracious of our fishes, 
feeding upon all forms of small fry and insects, and where abundant is 
very destructive to the more valuable forms of fish life. Its flesh is said 
to be soft, nauseous, and quite uneatable. 

In May and June the Dogfish resort to weedy bays and marshes, 
where they spawn, the parent fish remaining with the eggs until they are 
hatched, and afterwards protecting the young for some time. 


Series TELEOSTEI. (The Bony Fishes.) 

This group comprises the majority of existing fishes. It 1s apparently 
descended from the Ganoid type. As a whole, the Teleostei differ from the 
Ganoids in the more perfectly ossified skeleton, the less heterocercal tail, 
the degradation of the air bladder and the arterial bulb, and in the sim- 
plicity of the optic chiasma. 

The Teleostei are divisible into two great groups with rather ill- 
defined boundaries, the Physostomi, or soft-rayed fishes, and the Physo- 
clysti, or spiny-rayed. The members of the former group have through- 
out life a slender duct, by which the air bladder is joined to the alimentary 
canal. In most cases the fin rays are soft, the ventral fins abdominal, the 
pectoral fins placed low, and the scales cycloid. Although the typical 
Physostomi differ in many ways from the more specialized Physoclysti, 
yet as we approach the junction of the two groups the subordinate differ- 
ences disappear, leaving finally the presence of the air duct in Physostom! 
as the only differential character. 


This group is characterized chiefly by the modification of the anterior 
vertebrae. These are codssified and have some of their lateral and superior 
elements detached and modified to form a chain of small bones, the Web- 
erian ossicles, which connect the air bladder with the ear. 

Order NEMATOGNATHI. (Catfishes.) 

This order contains several families, which agree in having the sub- 
opercle wanting, the anterior vertebre coalesced, and the maxillary 
reduced to the bony core of a long barbel. None of the order have scales. 


Body more or less elongate, naked, or with bony plates. No true 
scales. Anterior part of head with two or more barbels; the base of the 
longest pair formed by the small or rudimentary maxillary. Margin of 
upper jaw formed by premaxillaries only. Suboperculum absent; oper- 
culum present. Dorsal fin usually present, short, above or in front of the 
ventrals. Usually an adipose fin behind dorsal. First ray of dorsal and 
pectorals usually developed as a stout spine. Lower pharyngeals separate. 
Air bladder usually present, large and connected with the organ of hearing 
by means of the auditory ossicles. 

A vast family of more than one hundred genera and upwards of nine 
hundred species, mostly of the rivers and swamps of warm regions, 
especially of South America and Africa. A few species are marine. They 
are all very tenacious of life and most of them are excellent as food. 



Body slender, elongate, compressed posteriorly; head slender, con- 
ical; superoccipital bone or process prolonged backward, its emarginated 
apex receiving the acuminate anterior point of the second interspinal, thus 
forming a continuous bony bridge from the head to the dorsal spine; mouth 
small, terminal, the upper jaw longer; teeth subulate, in a short band in 
each jaw; dorsal fin high, with one long spine and usually six rays; adi- 
pose fin over posterior part of anal; anal fin long, with twenty-five to thirty- 
five rays; ventral fins each with one simple and seven branched rays; 
fins each with a stout spine, retrorse serrate within, and about nine rays; 
pectoral fins each with a stout spine, retrorse serrate within, and about 
nine rays; caudal fin elongate, deeply forked, the lobes pointed, the upper 
the longer. Colouration pale or silvery, usually with dark spots on the 

(8) Channel Cat. Spotted Cat. 

(Ictalurus punctatus. ) 

Head rather small, narrow, convex above, so that the eye is little 
nearer the upper than the lower outline. Eye rather large (for a Catfish). 
Mouth small. Barbels long, the maxillary barbels reaching more or less 
beyond the gill opening. Spines long, the pectoral spines strongly ser- 
rated behind. Body rather long and slender. Colour light olivaceous or 
bluish above; sides silvery, nearly always marked with irregular small, 
dark, roundish spots; belly white; fins often with dark edgings. 

el AO Al Pome Nala ee 

It is extremely variable in colour and in number of fin rays, and has 
consequently been described under a number of different names. 

The Channel Cat grows to a length of about three feet and a weight 
of twenty-five pounds or rather more, and is a most excellent table fish. 
It is not very common in our waters, but is taken most frequently in Lakes 
Erie and Ontario. Unlike most of the family, it seems to prefer pure, 
clear water and is partial to deep, flowing streams. 

Genus AMEIURUS. (Hornep Pouts.) 

Body moderately elongated, robust anteriorly, the caudal peduncle 
much compressed ; head large, wide, obtuse ; superoccipital extended back- 
ward, terminating in a more or less acute point, which is entirely separate 
from the second interspinal buckler; skin covering the bones thick; eyes 
rather small; mouth large, the upper jaw usually the longer; teeth in 
broad bands on the premaxillaries and mandibles; band of upper jaw 
convex in front, of equal breadth, and without backward prolongation at 
the angle; dorsal over the space between pectorals and ventrals, higher 

(ssnpopund snunjpopy) “yea payodg 


than long, with a sharp spine and about six branched rays; adipose fin 
short, inserted over the posterior half of the anal. Anal fin of varying 
iength, with fifteen to thirty-five rays, the usual number being twenty or 
twenty-one. Caudal fin short, truncate in typical species, more or less 
forked in those species which approach the genus Ictalurus. Ventrals each 
with one simple and seven branched rays. Pectorals each with a stout 
spine, which is commonly retrorse serrate behind. Lateral line usually 

The species are variable and not easily distinguished. Those in which 
the caudal fin is forked make an approach to the genus Ictalurus. The 
lack of connection between the supraoccipital and the interspinal buckler 
is the only character by which these species can be separated from Icta- 


(9) Lake Catfish. Channel Cat. 

(Ameiurus lacustris.) 

Head broad, much depressed; mouth wide; eye rather small. Body 
stout; dorsal base short, one-half the height of fin. Adipose fin well 
developed; caudal not deeply forked; pectoral spine as long as dorsal 
spine. Colour olivaceous slaty, growing darker with age; sides pale, no 
spots; anal dusky on edge; barbels black. 

eter erra ce TOMO Ne ice View Pe a, 

This Catfish has a wide range, and is consequently variable. It is 
generally distributed throughout the Great Lakes and in deep rivers, but 
is more abundant in Lake Erie than any other of our waters. 

As a food fish it is highly esteemed by people who have no prejudices 
against Catfish in general, though, like the rest of the tribe, its appear- 
ance is not prepossessing. 

In the south specimens weighing over one hundred pounds are said 
to be taken, but with us the fish very rarely attains a greater weight than 
about thirty pounds. 

Of its habits but very little is known. It is a bottom feeder and will 
take a great variety of baits. Night lines set in its haunts and baited 
with pieces of fish or small frogs are successfully used in taking it. 

(10) Yellow Catfish. 

(Ameiurus natalis.) 

Head rather broad; mouth wide, with the upper jaw usually longer 
than the lower, sometimes equal. The dorsal profile gradually ascends 
from the snout to the dorsal spine. Eye moderate; maxillary barbel reach- 


ing end of head; humeral shield little developed ; dorsal and pectoral spines 
strong, shorter than soft rays; height of dorsal equal to twice the length 
of its base; adipose fin long, opposite to and longer than anal; caudal 
rounded. Colour yellowish, more or less clouded with darker. Length 
about eighteen inches. 

De le OS AL 2A aN le eS) 

The Yellow Cat is found in Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron. It is 
not a very well marked species and is in consequence generally confused 
with the other smal] Catfish. Its flesh is much esteemed by some people, 
but as an angler’s fish it is not highly prized. 

Sluggish streams, weedy bays and deep water marshes are its favorite 
resorts, and in its habits it resembles the other members of the genus. 

(11) Long-jawed Catfish. 
(Ameiurus vulgaris.) 

Head longer than broad, rather narrow forward, mouth wide; barbels 
long; lower jaw more or less distinctly projecting. Eye very small. Adi- 
pose fin well developed. The pectoral spine is stout and about two-thirds 
as long as the fin. Caudal square; anal rounded. Length about eighteen 
inches. Colour dark reddish brown, varying to blackish. D. I., 6; A., 
its) 10) BOS Ws Ilas te 

This species is found in most still weedy waters throughout the Pro 
vince, being most abundant from Lake Erie westward. Under favorable 
conditions it sometimes attains a weight of four pounds and is equally 
good as a food fish as the rest of its tribe, which it also resembles in its 

(12) Common Catfish. Bullhead. 

(Ameiurus nebulosus.) 

Head heavy, upper jaw usually distinctly longer than the lower. 
Barbels, eight; maxillary barbels as long as head; dorsal profile from tip 
of snout to dorsal fin straight and rather steep; mouth wide and terminal ; 
teeth awl-shaped, in broad bands on the intermaxillaries and dentaries ; 
dorsal situated in front of middle of body, short and high; adipose fin 
stout; anal large. Caudal square or slightly emarginate. Colour very 
variable, usually dark yellowish or olive, clouded with darker above, 
becoming yellowish or almost white below; sometimes entirely black. 

DD Sale Sts WAS 2OmtO m2 ee \aelea Gs 

This species reaches a maximum length of about eighteen inches and 
a weight of four pounds; the average of those taken in our waters is, 
however, much less. It is the common Catfish of the Province, occurring 
abundantly in all quiet streams, ponds and_ bays, especially in those 
having a mud bottom. 

Early in June, when about to spawn, the Catfishes select a spot in 
quiet shallow water near aquatic weeds and there they make a nest, from 



eight inches to one foot in diameter, by clearing out a slight Jepression 
in the-mud or sand. In this nest about two thousand eggs are deposited, 
over which the parents keep guard, the male being most assiduous in the 
work of protection. In about a week the eggs are hatched and the young, 
which look very like little black tadpoles, follow the parent fish along the 
shores until nearly the middle of July, when they are left to shift for them- 
selves; after this the fry soon scatter and disappear into deep weedy water. 
They grow rapidly, and under favorable circumstances are said to attain 
maturity in three years. 

The Catfish is an omnivorous feeder, nothing in the shape of animal 
food being beneath its notice, nor is it particular where it obtains its food, 
for I have taken it at all depths from the surface of the water to the bot- 
tom, though its general habit is to grub about on the mud, seeking for 
what it may devour. 

As an article of food this fish does not rank in the first class in the 
estimation of most people; there are others, however, who prefer it to 
any of the so-called ‘‘coarse fish,’’ while to the small boy who goes fishing 
it is a source of endless delight and a joy forever. 

(13) Black Catfish. 

(Ameiurus melas.) 

Body short, stout and deep. Head broad behind, rather contracted 
anteriorly ; the dorsal profile straight and rather steep from tip of snout to 
dorsal fin; eye rather small; barbels longer than head. Caudal peduncle 
stout. Tail truncate; adipose fin well developed; teeth very fine, awl- 
shaped and in broad bands. Rays of anal fin white, in marked contrast 
with the dark membranes. The dorsal spine strong and sharply pointed; 
anal fin short and deep. 

Del, 67-A.,; 

This is a small species, rarely exceeding ten inches in length. In 
colour it varies from yellowish brown to black above, becoming bluish 
white below. 

I am not certain that this species should be included here, though it 
is recorded from the upper St. Lawrence and from the south shore of Lake 
Ontario, in New York State, and I believe that many years ago I took it 
in the County of Lincoln, Ontario. It will probably be found sparingly 
in Lake Erie, but its centre of abundance is south and west of this Pro- 

Genus NOTURUS. (Stone Catrisu.) 

Body moderately elongate, robust except in caudal part, which is 
much compressed; head flat and broad; mouth terminal broad; teeth in 
broad villiform bands on premaxillaries and dentaries; teeth of upper jaw 
prolonged backward into an elongate triangular extension; adipose fin 
adnate to the back; a poison gland at the base of the pectoral spine. 


(14) Stone Catfish. 
(Noturus flavus.) 

Body moderately elongate; head broad and flat; barbels short, longer 
barbel on chin not quite half as long as the head; nasal barbel when laid 
back reaches end of eye. The low adipose fin begins over the anal origin 
and continues into the caudal; in adult specimens it is deeply notched. 
Caudal fin rounded. Pectoral spine retrorse—serrate in front, roughish 
behind. Colour nearly uniform yellowish brown, 

Length about twelve inches. 

Dk 650A tO Ve. Oeky lee: 

This species appears to be generally distributed through the Lake 
Ontario and Erie waters, but is not abundant. It is an unpleasant fish to 
handle because of the painful wounds produced by its pectoral spines. 
There is a minute pore at the base of the pectoral spine which is the outlet 
of a noxious fluid secreted by a poison gland. When this poison is dis- 
charged into a wound it causes a very painful sore. 


Body moderately elongate, rounded anteriorly, compressed posteriorly ; 
head flat; skin very thick, concealing bones of head; superoccipital not 
joined to the head of the second interspinal; mouth large, anterior, the 
upper jaw somewhat the longer; awl-shaped teeth in broad bands in the 
jaws, the band in the upper jaw abruptly truncate at each end and not 
prolonged into a backward extension as in Noturus; branchiostegals nine ; 
dorsal fin nearer to ventrals than to pectorals, with a short spine and 
seven rays; adipose fin long and low, adnate to the body and continuous 
with the caudal fin, the adipose membrane sometimes high and continuous, 
sometimes emarginate; caudal fin very obliquely truncated or rounded, its 
base also obliquely rounded; many rudimentary rays both above and below 
the caudal peduncle; anal fin short, with twelve to twenty-three rays; 
ventrals rounded; pectoral fins with a sharp spine of varying form; vent 
well in front of anal fin; lateral line complete. A poison gland opening 
by an orifice in the axil of the pectoral. Wounds caused by the pectoral 
spines are exceedingly painful. 

(15) Tadpole Stone Cat. Mad Tom. 

(Schilbeodes gyrinus.) 

Body short and stout, sloping rapidly downward from the dorsal 
origin to the tip of the snout. Head short, broad and depressed, its width 
nearly equal to its length; jaws nearly equal; snout short; eye small. The 
maxillary barbel reaches to the base of the pectoral; the outer mandibulary 


barbel is slightly longer. The nasal barbel is one-half as long as the head. 
Adipose fin low, beginning over the anal origin and is continuous with the 
caudal. The ventral origin is under the end of the dorsal base, the fin does 
not reach to anal origin. The caudal is rounded. 

Colour brownish without blotches. 

Db O70. PoptOmEC es Pen aS: 

This little Catfish rarely exceeds four or five inches in length. It 
frequents slow streams and weedy ponds and has the habit of hiding 
beneath stones and among water plants. As in Noturus, there is a poison 
gland at the base of the pectoral spine. It is said to occur in the region 
of the Lower Lakes, but as yet I have not found it. 

Order PLECTOSPONDYLI. (Carplike Fishes.) 

Soft-rayed or physostomous fishes, with the parietals broad, distinct ; 
pterotic normal; symplectic present; opercular bones all present; meso- 
coracoid present; no interclavicles; the four anterior vertebrae much modi- 
fied and joined together, provided with the Weberian apparatus or ossi- 
cula auditus. Branchiostegals few, usually three or four; shoulder girdle 
attached to the skull. This group consists entirely of fresh water fishes, 
and includes about eight families, to which belong the majority of all the 
fresh water fishes of the world. The essential character of the order lies 
in the modification of the anterior vertebra, as in the Nematognathi, but 
without the character of the rudimenary subopercle and maxillary and the 
scaleless skin which distinguish the Catfishes. 

Suborder EVENTOGNATHI. (The Carps.) 

Plectospondylous fishes with the lower pharyngeals falciform, parallel 
with the gill arches; two upper pharyngeal bones; brain case produced 
between orbits; jaws without teeth; dorsal fin present; no adipose fin; 
ventrals abdominal. Gill openings restricted, the gill membranes attached 
to the isthmus. Streams and lakes of northern regions. Species very 


Body oblong or elongate, usually more or less compressed. Head 
more or less conical. Opercles normally developed. Nostrils double; no 
barbels; mouth large or small, usually protractile and with fleshy lips. 
Margin of upper jaw formed in the middle by the small premaxillaries, 
and on the side by the maxillaries; jaws toothless. Lower pharyngeal 
bones falciform, armed with a single row of numerous comb-like teeth. 
Branchiostegals three; gill membranes more or less united to the isthmus, 
restricting the gill openings to the sides; gills four, a slit behind the 

3 F. 


fourth ; :pseudobranchie present. Scales cycloid, large or small. Lateral 
line decurved, sometimes wanting. Head naked; fins not scaly. Dorsal 
fin comparatively long (of ten to fifty rays), without true spine; anal fin 
short; caudal fin more or less forked; ventrals abdominal, with about ten 
rays; pectoral fins placed low, without spine; no adipose fin; belly not 
serrated. Alimentary canal long. Stomach simple; no pyloric ceca. Air 
bladder large, divided into two or three parts by transverse constrictions, 
not surrounded by a bony capsule. 

Genus ICTIOBUS. (BurFaco FISHES.) 

Body robust; head very large and strong. Eye moderate, anterior. 
Fontanelle large, well open. Opercular apparatus largely developed; the 
suboperculum broad; the operculum strongly furrowed. Mouth large for 
a sucker, terminal, protractile forward, or downward and forward. Man- 
dible strong, oblique. Lips little developed; the upper narrow and smooth ; 
the lower rather full on the sides, but reduced to a narrow rim in front. 
Jaws without cartilaginous sheath. Muciferous system of head well devel- 
oped. Isthmus narrow, Pharyngeal bones rather weak; the teeth num- 
erous, moderate or small; the lower ones gradually larger than the upper 
ones. Gill rakers long and slender above, becoming shorter downward. 
Scales large, thick, nearly equal over the body ; lateral line well developed, 
slightly decurved anteriorly. Dorsal fin elongate; anterior rays somewhat 
elevated, their length about half that of the base of the fin; caudal not 
much forked; anal fin not much elevated; pectorals and ventrals moderate. 
Sexual differences slight. 

This genus contains an uncertain number of species, very few of 
which have been yet well defined. They are large, coarse suckers, especi- 
ally characteristic of the streams of the Mississippi Valley, and need much 


(16) Buffalo-fish. Sucker-mouthed Buffalo. 
(Ictiobus bubalus.) 

Body considerably elevated and compressed above; the dorsal region 
subcarinate; belly thicker; axis of body above the ventrals, below the 
lateral line, and nearly twice as far from the back as from the belly. Head 
moderate, triangular in outline when viewed from the side. Mouth quite 
small; mandible about equal to eye. Dorsal fin elevated in front and 
rapidly declined, the highest ray reaching much beyond the middle of the 
fin, the seventh ray about half the length of the third or longest. Anal 
rays rapidly shortened behind ; the middle rays much shorter than the first 
long ones. Caudal deeply lunate. Colour, pale, slightly. dusky; fins 
searcely dusky. D., 29% A. 10; Vo, 10 scales so ago Os 

( rwosdimoy) sapoidang ) —* Wana] 


Southward and in the Mississippi basin this is the best known of all 
the Buffalo fishes. It reaches a length of three feet and a weight of thirty- 
five pounds. 

The only Ontario record I have is that of a specimen in the Fisheries 
Museum at Ottawa, said to have been taken in this Province. 

Genus CARPIODES,. (Carp Suckers.) 

Body oblong, the dorsal outline more or less arched; ventral outline 
nearly straight; depth from one-half to one-third of length; sides com- 
pressed; the back sharp edged; caudal peduncle short and deep; head 
short and deep, its upper surface rounded; eye moderate, median or 
anterior ; suborbital bones well developed; fontanel present; mouth small, 
horizontal and inferior; mandible short; lips thin, the upper protractile, 
narrow, the lower narrow; lips freely plicate or nearly smooth; jaws with- 
out cartilaginous sheath; muciferous system moderately developed; oper- 
cular apparatus well developed, the subopercle broad; isthmus moderate ; 
pharyngeal bones remarkably thin, laterally compressed, with a shallow 
furrow along the anterior margin on the inside, and another more central 
on the outline of the enlarged surfaces; teeth very small, compressed, 
nearly equally thin along the whole inner edge of the bone, forming a fine, 
comblike crest of minute serratures, their cutting edge rising above the 
inner margin into a prominent point; gill rakers slender and stiff above, 
becoming reduced downward; scales large, about equal over the body; 
lateral line well developed, nearly straight; dorsal fin long, nearly median, 
somewhat in advance of ventrals, falcate, its anterior rays elevated, often 
filamentous ; caudal fin well forked, the lobes equal; anal fin comparatively 
long and low, few-rayed; ventrals rather short, usually with ten rays; 
pectorals short, placed low; air bladder with two chambers. Size medium 
or rather large. 

(17) Drum. Lake Carp. 
(Carpiodes thompsoni.) 

Body short and stout, the back strongly arched. Head short, the 
snout acutely pointed; lips thin, white, meeting at a wide angle; tip of 
lower jaw much in advance of nostrils; eye small; dorsal about median, 
its rays considerably elevated, the longest two-thirds as long as base of 
fin. Scales rather closely imbricated, 8-39 to 41-6. 

27 Ae Neate 

This fish ranges from the upper St. Lawrence to Lake Huron, and 
is common in Lake Erie. It is not valued as a food fish, its flesh being 
coarse and not well flavored. 

It attains a weight of five or six pounds. 



Body elongate, fusiform, rounded, tapering anteriorly and posteriorly ; 
head long, with pointed snout; eye small, placed high; suborbital bones 
narrow; fontanel present, large; mouth rather large, inferior, upper lip 
thick, protractile, papillose, lower lip greatly developed, with a broad free 
margin, usually deeply incised behind, so that it forms two lobes, which 
are often more or less separated; mandible horizontal, short; opercles 
moderate; pharyngeal bones moderate, their teeth shortish, vertically 
compressed, rapidly diminishing in size upward; scales comparatively 
small; typically much smaller and crowded anteriorly; lateral line well 
developed, straightish; dorsal nearly median, with from nine to fourteen 
rays; anal fin short and high, with seven developed rays; ventrals inserted 
under the middle or posterior part of dorsal, with nine to ten rays; caudal 
fin forked, the lobes nearly equal. In males the fins are higher, and the 
anal is swollen and tuberculate in the spring. Air bladder with two cham- 
bers, the posterior large. Vertebra forty-five to forty-seven. 

(18) Northern Sucker. Long-nosed Sucker. 

(Catostomus catostomus. ) 

Body elongate, round and tapering. Head long and slender, depressed 
and flattened above, broad at the base, but tapering into a long snout 
which overhangs the large mouth; lips thick, coarsely tuberculate, the 
upper lip narrow, with two or three, sometimes four, rows of papilla; 
lower lip deeply incised. Eye small; scales very small, much crowded 

Ds 10-Or 105 As, 7:06 Oa ale: 

Colour above greyish brown, becoming white below. Males in spring 
with the head profusely tuberculate and the side with a broad rosy band. 
In many specimens this band is persistent all through the season. 

This Sucker has a very wide range, being found from the St. Law- 
rence River all through the Great Lake region to the extreme north, and 
is abundant in the streams about Hudson’s Bay. It spawns in early 

As a food fish it is not highly esteemed. When fully grown it reaches 
a weight of four or five pounds. 

(19) Common Sucker. White Sucker. 

(Catostomus commersonii.) 

Body moderately stout, heavy at the shoulders and tapering to the 
tail. Head conical, flattish above; snout rather prominent, scarcely over- 



passing the mouth, which is rather large, with the lips papillose, the upper 
with two or three rows of papille. Scales small, crowded anteriorly, 
larger on the sides and below; dorsal fin situated in middle of length; 
ventral opposite dorsal; anal far back. 

Scales, 10-64 to 70-9. 

De 2is Ans Zee, -O: 

Colour, brownish or olivaceous above, white below; the males in 
spring showing a rosy flush. The young more brownish, very much 
blotched and marked with blackish. A small race of this species occurs 
in streams which are blocked by dams or other impediments so as to pre- 
vent the fish ever running down to the lakes. These fish never grow to 
a greater length than about five or six inches, nor do they lose the dark 
markings of the young; yet in that condition they undoubtedly spawn, for 
the supply is always maintained. 

This is the most abundant of all the Suckers in Ontario waters, and 
the most generally distributed. It is found in lakes, rivers and even in 
land-locked marshes and ponds. It spawns in early spring soon after the 
ice goes out, and then forces its way up the flooded streams and through 
the swiftest rapids to reach the spawning beds. At this time vast numbers 
are speared and netted by fish-hungry people in the rural districts, for at 
this season its flesh is eatable, though coarse and full of bones. Com- 
mercially it is of very little value, but as it affords food for Bass, Lake 
Trout, and all other predaceous and voraceous fishes, it is of considerable 
economic importance. 

Its food consists largely of soft-bodied insects and the smaller crus- 
taceans, and it will readily take worm bait. 

The largest I have ever seen would weigh from three to four pounds, 
but they were exceptional; from one and a half to two being about the 
average size of the spring run of Suckers. 

(20) Hog Sucker. Stone Roller. 

(Catostomus nigricans.) 

Body subterete ; head flattened on top, the interorbital space concave 
and the frontal bone short, broad and thick; eye rather small; mouth 
large, lips well developed and strongly papillose; fins all large, caudal 
moderately forked; lateral line fully developed, on median line of body. 
Scales moderate, equal 7-52-7. 

Darn Meee eNO: 

Colour brassy olive, the back with dark cross blotches which disap- 
pear with age; lower fins red. 

A large species, sometimes reaching two feet in length. It is found 
in Lake Erie and is recorded by Messrs. Evermann and Goldsborough 
from Lake of the Woods. 



Body oblong, compressed; head moderate; mouth moderate, some- 
what inferior, the upper lip well developed, freely protractile, the lower 
moderate, infolded, inversely V-shaped in outline, plicate with twelve to 
twenty folds on each side; lower jaw without cartilaginous sheath, rather 
stronger than usual, and oblique when the mouth is closed; eye moderate ; 
suborbital bones well developed, not much narrower than the fleshy part 
of the cheek below them; opercular bones moderately developed, not 
rugose; fontanelle rather large; gill rakers rather long; pharyngeal bones 
weak; the teeth quite small, slender, and weak, rapidly diminishing in 
length upward, each tooth narrowly compressed, with a cusp on the inner 
margin of the cutting surface; scales rather large, more or less crowded 
forward; no lateral line; dorsal fin rather short and high, rays usually 
eleven or twelve; pectoral fins moderate; anal fin high and short, more or 
less emarginate or bilobed in adult males; caudal fin moderately forked or 
lunate, its lobes subequal. Air bladder with two chambers. 

(21) Chub Sucker. 

(Erimyzon sucetta.) 

Head rather short, broad above. Body oblong, rather deep, com- 
pressed. Mouth rather small and but slightly inferior, protractile. Dorsal 
short, rather high placed in middle of length; caudal slightly forked; no 
lateral line. Scales, 43-15. 

Deen tolre ewe tones 

Colour dusky, brassy below; young with black bands or bars and 
pale streaks. 

Our form is probably E. sucetta oblongus. It reaches a length of 
about ten inches and feeds on soft-bodied insects. 

Genus MINYTREMA. (Sporrep SUCKERS.) 

Body rather elongate, subterete, becoming deeper and rather com- 
pressed with age; scales rather large and nearly uniform in size; lateral 
line interrupted in the adult, but with perfect tubes, imperfect in partly 
grown specimens, and obsolete in the young; head moderate, rather broad 
above; mouth moderate, inferior, horizontal; the upper lip well developed, 
freely protractile; the lower rather small, infolded, inversely V-shaped in 
outline, lower jaw without cartilaginous sheath; eye moderate, rather 
high, nearly median; suborbital bones well developed; opercular bones 
well developed, not very rough; fontanelle rather large; gill rakers rather 
long; isthmus moderate; pharyngeal bones essentially as in Moxostoma ; 
dorsal fin rather short and high, inserted somewhat nearer to tip of snout 
than to base of caudal; pectoral fins moderate, placed low; anal high and 


short; ventrals short, midway between tip of snout and base of caudal ; 
caudal fin moderately forked, the lobes equal; air bladder with two cham- 
bers. Head in males tuberculate in spring. 

(22) Striped Sucker. 

(Minytrema melanops.) 

Body oblong, subterete; head moderate, subconical; eye small; nos- 
trils about over the angle of the mouth; dorsal origin over tip of pectoral; 
ventrals nearly under middle of dorsal. Scales large, firm, 46-13. 

Deas As 7 Vo oO, 

Colour dusky above, coppery below, usually a dusky blotch behind 
dorsal fin; scales mostly with a dark spot at the base, the spots forming 
longitudinal stripes. In the young there is no lateral line, but in adults it 
is almost entire. Old males during the spawning season in the spring 
have the head tuberculate. 

This species is found in Lake Erie and probably occurs sparingly in 
Lake Ontario also, but I have no records from that region. As a food 
fish it is of little value. 


Body moderately elongate, sometimes nearly round, usually com- 
pressed; scales large, nearly uniform in size; lateral line complete, straight 
or anteriorly curved; head varying in length, subconical; eye usually 
rather large, placed moderately high; suborbital bones very narrow; fon- 
tanelle well developed; mouth varying much in size, inferior, the mandible 
horizontal or nearly so; lips unusually well developed, the form of the 
lower varying, usually with a slight median fissure, but never deeply 
incised; lips with transverse folds, which are rarely broken up to form 
papilla; jaws without cartilaginous sheath; muciferous system well 
developed ; opercular bones moderately developed, nearly smooth; isthmus 
broad; gill rakers weak, moderately long; pharyngeal bones rather weak, 
the teeth rather coarser than in Erimyzon and Catostomus, strongly com- 
pressed, the lower five or six stronger than the others, which rapidly 
diminish in size upward, each with a prominent internal cusp; dorsal fin 
nearly median, moderately long; anal fin short and high, with seven 
developed rays; caudal fin deeply forked; air bladder with three chambers. 

(23) White-nosed Sucker. 
(Moxostoma anisurum.) 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed, slightly arched anteriorly. 
Head moderate, flat and broad above. Mouth slightly inferior; upper lip 
thin, lower strongly V-shaped; eye large. Snout rather blunt, not pro- 
jecting much beyond the mouth; fins all well developed, the dorsal large, 
its first ray is as long as the base of the fin; upper caudal lobe narrow 
and longer than the lower. Scales, 5 to 6; 43 to 46; 4,to 5. 


DE UGG An Se LOnO aN moe 

Colour pale; caudal smoky gray; lower fins red. 

This species is generally distributed through the St. Lawrence, Lake 
Ontario and Lake Erie regions, but is nowhere abundant. When fully 
developed it attains a length of about two feet. 

(24) Short-headed Mullet. 
(Moxostoma breviceps. ) 

Body deep, compressed; head small; snout short and sharply conic, 
overhanging the very small mouth, form suggesting that of the Whitefish ; 
caudal fin with the upper lobe falcate and much longer than the lower ; 
dorsal fin short, high and falcate; anal large, falcate, reaching beyond 
front of caudal. Scales, 6-45-5. 

Colour silvery, the lower fins bright red. 

This species seems to be confined entirely to Lake Erie, so far as our 
Province is concerned. It attains a length of about one foot and ranks 
with the other fresh water Mullets as food. 

(25) Common Mullet. Red-horse. 
(Moxostoma aureoleum. ) 

Body oblong, the back in front of dorsal elevated and compressed ; 
head short, conical, broad between eyes; mouth rather small, with thick 
lips; snout somewhat projecting; eye rather large; caudal peduncle deep, 
compressed. Caudal forked. Scales large, about equal in size all over 
the body and finely striated, 6-46-6; lateral line complete. 

ID Rae ee aoe) 

Colour olivaceous, with strong brassy reflections, paler below; tail 
and lower fins red. 

This is the handsomest and best of all the Sucker family. It was 
formerly abundant in the waters of the Lakes from the St. Lawrence to 
Lake Superior, but owing to persistent netting during the spawing season 
it has become comparatively scarce, In the early spring, as soon as the 
ice moves out, the Mullet run up the streams to spawn, forcing their way 
through the swiftest torrents in order to reach the gravelly beds, upon 
which the ova are deposited. After spawning they retire to deep water. 
While in the streams they will readily take worm bait, and as they fre- 
quently attain a weight of four or five pounds they afford good sport in 
the swift waters they frequent. 

Famity CYPRINIDA. (THE Carps.) 

Cyprinoid fishes with the margin of the upper jaw formed by the pre- 
maxillaries alone and the lower pharyngeal bones well developed, falci- 
form nearly parallel with the gill arches, each provided with one to three 
series of teeth in small number, four to seven in the main row, and a less 



number in the others, if more are present. Head naked; body scaly in all 
our species. Barbels two or four; absent in most of our genera and not 
large in any. Belly usually rounded, rarely compressed, never serrated. 
Gill openings moderate, the membranes broadly joined to the isthmus. 
Branchiostegals always three. Gills four, a slit behind the fourth. Pseudo- 
branchiz usually present. No adipose fin, Dorsal fin short in all the 
American species. Ventral fins abdominal. Air bladder usually large, 
commonly divided into an anterior and posterior lobe, not inclosed in a 
bony capsule, rarely wanting. Stomach without appendages, appearing 
as a simple enlargement of the intestines. T‘ishes mostly of moderate or 
small size; very abundant both in individuals and species, and from their 
great uniformity in size, form, and colouration, constituting one of the 
most difficult groups in natural history in which to distinguish genera and 
species. Our genera are mostly very closely related, and are separated 
by characters which, although reasonably constant, are often of slight 
structural importance. The spring or breeding dress of the male fishes 
is often peculiar. The top of the head and often the fins or various por- 
tions of the body are covered with small tubercles, outgrowths from the 
epidermis. The fins and lower parts of the body in the spring males are 
often charged with bright pigment, the prevailing colour of which is red, 
although in some genera it is satin white, yellowish, or black. 

Young Cyprinidae are usually more slender than adults of the same 
species, and the eye is always much larger; they also frequently show a 
black lateral stripe and caudal spot, which the adults may not possess. 

The fins and scales are often, especially in specimens living in small 
streams, covered with round black specks, immature trematodes. These 
should not be mistaken for colour markings. 


Body moderately elongate, little compressed; mouth normal, the jaws 
with thick lips and rudiment of a hard sheath; premaxillaries protractile ; 
no barbel; teeth 4-4 or 1, 4-4, 0, with oblique grinding: surface, and a 
slight hook on one or two teeth; air bladder suspended in the abdominal 
cavity and entirely surrounded by many convolutions of the long alimentary 
canal; peritoneum black ; pseudobranchiz present ; scales moderate ; lateral 
line present; dorsal nearly over ventrals; anal short; no spines. Herbiv- 
orous. Sexual differences very great, the males being covered with large 
tubercles in spring. The singular arrangement of the intestines in rela- 
tion to the air bladder is peculiar to Campostoma among all known fishes. 

(26) Stone Roller. Stone Lugger. 
(Campostoma anomalum.) 

Body moderately stout, not greatly compressed; the caudal peduncle 
long and deep. Snout obtuse. Scales, 8-52 to 53-8. 


[Dei topes dain aOIS o- 

Colour brownish with a brassy lustre above, the scales mottled; a 
black vertical bar behind opercle; iris orange. Dorsal and anal each with 
a dusky cross-bar about half way up; in spring males the upper half of 
these fins is fiery orange. In the spawning season, the males have the 
head and frequently the entire body covered with large tubercles. Young, 
mottled brownish, the fins plain. 

In this species the intestinal canal is from six to nine times the total 
length of the body, its numerous convolutions passing above and around 
the air bladder, an arrangement found in Campostoma alone among all 
the vertebrates (Jordan). It grows to a length of about eight inches and 
“6 widely distributed. 

I have not yet found this fish in our Province, but it should and 
probably does occur in streams flowing into the Niagara River and into 
ake = Hate: 


Body moderately elongate, little compressed ; jaws normal; no barbel ; 
teeth 5-5 or 4-5, moderately hooked, with well marked grinding surface ; 
alimentary canal elongate, about twice as long as body; peritoneum black ; 
scales very small; lateral line short or wanting; dorsal behind ventrals; 
anal basis short. Size small. Colours in spring brilliant, the pigment 
bright red. 

(27) Red-bellied Dace. 
(Chrosomus erythrogaster.) 

Body fusiform; head conical with pointed snout; caudal moderately 
forked, its middle rays two-thirds as long as the outer. Scales, 18-80 to 
35-10; teeth, 5-5- Length about threeinches. *D:85-A;, 7; V., 8; P:, 12: 
Colour, brownish olive, with black spots on the back, a blackish band from 
above eye straight to the tail, sometimes breaking up in spots behind; 
another below, broader, running through eye, decurved along the lateral 
line, ending in a black spot at base of caudal; belly and space between the 
bands bright silvery, brilliant scarlet in spring males, as are the bases of 
the vertical fins; the females are obscurely marked. 

This species has been taken in Algonquin Park by Prof. Macoun, but 
I have no other records. 


Body elongate, somewhat compressed; mouth horizontal, the jaws 
normal, sharp-edged ; lower jaw with a slight, hard protuberance in front ; 
no barbel; upper jaw protractile; teeth 4-4, cultriform, with oblique grind- 
ing surface and little if any hook; alimentary canal elongate, three to ten 
times the length of the body; peritoneum black; scales large; lateral line 
continuous; dorsal inserted before ventrals; anal basis short. Size mod- 


erate. Sexual changes very slight, no red or black pigment distinguishing 
the males in spring. 


(28) Silvery Minnow. 
(Hybognathus nuchalis.) 

Body rather slender; head rather short, the profile evenly curved; eye 
moderate ; lateral line decurved. Caudal moderate in size and deeply forked. 
Scales, 6-38 to 39-4. Teeth, 4-4, long, much compressed, with a long 
oblique grinding surface. Intestines seven to ten times as long as the 

Colour above, olivaceous green, translucent; sides silvery, with bright 
reflections ; fins unspotted. Length about six inches. 

Has been taken in the Lake Ontario region of New York State and 
will probably also occur here. 

Genus PIMEPHALES. (Fat-HEap Minnows.) 

Body rather robust, little compressed ; head short and rounded, mouth 
small, inferior; upper jaw protractile; no barbel; teeth 4-4, with oblique 
grinding surface, usually only one of the teeth hooked; dorsal over ven- 
trals, its first (rudimentary) ray separated from the rest by membrane, 
not joined to them as usual in Minnows, this character most distinct in 
adult males, in which the skin of the first ray is thickened; anal basis 
short; intestinal canal elongate; peritoneum black; pseudobranchie pre- 
sent; scales rather small; lateral line complete or variously incomplete. 
Size small. Breeding males with much black pigment and with large 
warts on the head. 

Black-head Minnow.  ( Pimephales proimelas.) 

(29) Blackhead Minnow. Fathead. 

(Pimephales promelas.) 

Body short, deep, and moderately thick; head short, with a very 
obtuse snout; mouth very small terminal, slightly oblique. Scales, 9-45 
to 49-6. 

4 F. 


Das 8s AL Wie (735 Vee Orde peels 

Colour—Males in spring dusky, with black head and the snout and 
chin with numerous coarse tubercles. Females much paler; both sexes 
have a dark lateral stripe which varies much in individuals. Some speci- 
mens I have show it clear and distinct from shoulder to the end of the 
caudal, while in others it is scarcely visible. There is a dark band along 
the base of the dorsal, widest and most distinct in front, fading out to- 
wards the rear. Length about two and a half inches. 

The Blackhead is found chiefly in streams and ponds having a mud 
bottom. I have found it more frequently in Eastern Ontario than else- 
where. It spawns in June among the stones near the shores of its habitat. 

(30) Blunt-nosed Minnow. 
(Pimephales notatus.) 

Body rather elongate, with a slender caudal peduncle; head rather 
long, with the snout abruptly decurved. Mouth very small, inferior, nearly 
horizontal; caudal moderately large and forked. The lateral line curves 
very slightly downward as far as the ventral origin and then follows 
straight along the median line; it is complete. Scales, 6-42 to 45-5. Teeth, 
Aaa ee Aele Os Acsloee 7 te Ven Occ eae M5. 

Colour, dusky olive, lighter on sides, black spot on front of the dorsal 
(wanting in young). Head wholly black in spring males, the snout with 
fourteen large tubercles. 

This is a larger species than the preceding, reaching a length of four 
inches. It occurs in the St. Lawrence River and may be generally distrib- 
uted, but so far I have not found it in Western Ontario. 


Body stout, moderately compressed and elongate; mouth terminal, 
wide, the upper jaw protractile; a small barbel just above the end of the 
maxillary ; in most American Minnows the barbel is at its tip, the maxil- 
lary barbel sometimes absent in young; teeth 2, 5-4, 2, hooked, without 
grinding surface; scales rather large, lateral line complete; a short intes- 
tinal canal; dorsal placed behind ventrals; base of anal short. Vertebre, 
22+ 20= 42. 

(31) Chub. Horned Dace. 

(Semotilus corporalis.) 

Body moderately deep, elongate, with a stout caudal peduncle; head 
rather large; snout pointed; mouth oblique, jaws nearly equal, the maxilla 
extending to below front of eye. The caudal is large and deeply forked. 
The lateral line curves downward abruptly over the pectoral, becoming 




(sr DnopMOdy srpyOUey) — *quyg yeep 


median over the end of that fin. Scales, 7-46-5. A small barbel on max- 

DT 7 AG AL A SON sete kos 

Colour, upper parts steel blue; sides and belly silvery, fins unmarked. 
In spring the males have the belly and lower fins flushed with deep rose. 
This is the largest representative of the Minnow tribe in our waters, under 
favorable circumstances attaining a length of eighteen inches. It frequents 
streams and mill-ponds, spawns in June, and is most abundant in the 
eastern part of the Province. This fish is eatable, but its flesh is not 
greatly esteemed. 

(32) Creek Chub. Horned Dace. 

(Semotilus atromaculatus.) 

Body slender and moderately elongate; head thicker than the body 
and rather short; eye rather small and placed high. Mouth moderate, 
very slightly oblique, the jaws subequal, or the lower slightly included. 
Maxillary barbel minute (not evident in the young). The lateral line is 
abruptly bent downward over the first half of the pectoral, straight and 
nearly median durlng the rest of its course; caudal moderate and not very 
deeply forked. 

Sealess.9-56-0.. Dr 1,7 AG MN Sst Vi, On- bag ES: 

Colour, bluish brown above; sides with a distinct dusky band, which 
becomes obsolete in the adult. Young specimens have the end of this 
band more pronounced, forming a black spot at the base of the caudal. A 
small black blotch always present on the front of the base of the dorsal. 
Belly whitish. Males in the spring have the belly rose-tinted and coarse 
tubercles on the snout. This species sometimes attains a length of twelve 
inches; it is very abundant and generally distributed in all the streams of 
Ontario. As a food fish it does not take high rank, though it affords a 
great deal of sport for rural school boys. It spawns in early summer on 
the stony shallows in the streams it frequents. 

Genus LEUCISCUS. (Dace.) 

Body oblong, compressed or robust, covered with moderate or small 
scales; lateral line decurved, complete, or variously imperfect; mouth 
usually large and terminal, the lips normal, without barbel; teeth mostly 
2, 5-4, 2, but somewhat variable, hooked, with rather narrow grinding’ 
surface or none; anal basis short or more or less elongate; dorsal fin 
posterior, usually behind ventrals; intestinal canal short. . Size generally 
large, some species very small. A very large group, one of the largest 
current genera in ichthyology, represented by numerous species in North 




~ Made 

Red-sided Shiner. ( Leuciscus elongatus. ) 

(33) Red-sided Shiner. 
(Leuciscus elongatus.) 

Body elongate, fusiform with long and slender caudal peduncle; head 
large, with long pointed snout. Mouth wide, with projecting lower jaw. 
Caudal large and deeply forked. The lateral line is abruptly decurved 
over the front half of the pectoral. . 

DATS 73 As WN 75 V3 83 214s Meeth) <2, 5-5, 2, ooked some 
of them with a narrow grinding surface. Colour, dusky bluish, somewhat 
mottled; a broad black lateral band, the front half of which is bright crim- 
son in spring males and which is persistent in most specimens through the 

A very abundant ‘species found in most streams in southefn and 
central Ontario. One of the handsomest of our creek fish, 

Genus ABRAMIS. (BreEam.) 

’ Body subelliptic; strongly compressed, both back and belly curved; 
back narrowly compressed, almost carinated; belly behind ventral fins 
forming a keel over which the scales do not pass. Head small, conic; 
mouth small, oblique or horizontal, without barbels; scales rather large; 
lateral line continuous, strongly decurved; dorsal fin inserted behind the 
ventrals; anal fin with its base more or less elongate; teeth 5-5, hooked, 
with grinding surface, the edges more or less crenate or serrate; aliment- 
ary canal short, though rather longer than the body. 


(34) Butterfish. Golden Shiner. 
(Abramis crysoleucas. ) 

Body somewhat elongate, much compressed; head short, low, com- 
pressed, mouth small, oblique, the maxillary not reaching eye; lateral line 
much decurved. The dorsal fin higher than long, situated on middle of 
body. Caudal forked. Scales, 10-53-3. Teeth, 5-5, hooked and with 
grinding surface. 

De tSip. ale bey 

(‘snonaposhwo siumugpy )  “ysysteyqug 


Colour, greenish above, sides silvery in the young, with strong golden 
reflections in adults; fins yellowish. Length about ten inches. 

An abundant fish in quiet weedy waters throughout the southern and 
central part of the Province. Its flesh is edible, but soft and weedy 
flavoured. Spawns in early summer. 


Form and appearance of Pimephales, the same squammation, fin rays 
and plan of colouration, and the first ray of the dorsal similarly separated 
by the membrane; the structure of the mouth similar, but with the intes- 
tinal canal short, shorter than body, the peritoneum pale and the teeth 
more hooked, as in Notropis. The genus is very near Pimephales, 
although in its technical characters it approaches nearer to Notropis. 

(35) Bulihead Minnow. 
(Cliola vigilax.) 

Body rather stout, compressed, with deep tail; head heavy, blunt; 
snout short, decurved; mouth terminal, slightly oblique; teeth strongly 
hooked; scales in front of dorsal small, crowded. 

Scales; $-42-6;, Di, oO An 7, 

Colour, pale olivaceous with a plumbeous lateral band, always ending 
in a black spot at base of caudal; a conspicuous black spot on middle of 
front of dorsal. Resembles Pimephales notatus, but distinguished by the 
short intestine, larger mouth, paler colouration, with more definite mark- 
ings. Length, three inches. 

Jordan and Evermann record this fish from Detroit. It therefore will 
probably be found in the waters of southwestern Ontario. 

Genus NOTROPIS. (Suiners.) 

Body oblong or elongate, more or less compressed; mouth normal, 
mostly terminal and oblique, sometimes subinferior; no barbels; teeth in 
one or two rows, those of the larger row always 4-4, hooked, sharp edged, 
or with a narrow grinding surface; scales large, often closely imbricated, 
those before the dorsal rarely very small; lateral line complete or nearly so, 
usually decurved; dorsal fin inserted above, or more usually behind the 
ventrals ; anal fin short or moderately long, abdomen rounded, never sharp 
edged. Colouration more or less silvery, often brilliant, the males in 
spring usually with red or white pigment and the head with small tubercles. 
A very large group of small fishes, specially characteristic of the fresh 
waters of eastern North America. 


(36) Notropis cayuga. 
Head four and one-sixth; depth, four and a-half; eye three and a. 
half; scales, thirty-six. Teeth, 4-4. Lateral line wanting on some scales; 


mouth very small, anterior, the maxillary not reaching the eye; jaws sub- 
equal; eye large. Scales.above dark edged, the outlines very sharply 
defined; chin not black; a black stripe through snout and eye, a dusky 
lateral shade and-a small caudal spot. 

Length, two and a-half inches. 

As this species ranges trom New York State eectnera to Assiniboia 
it will no doubt be Soma in Ontario, but I have not yet seen it. 

(37) Notropis muskoka. 

Colour olivaceous, darker above, very pale below; a dark band about 
two-thirds diameter of eye around snout and on sides to base of caudal fin ; 
on the snout this band is confined to the upper jaw; between this band 
and the darker colour on the dorsal region is a lighter band of about the 
same width; a dark vertebral line present, also a similar one from base of 
anal to caudal fin. The lateral line is less developed in this species than 
in any other of the genus. 

It differs from Notropis cayuga in the reduced size of the scales before 
the dorsal fin, the more slender body, less blunt snout, and the slightly 
larger and more oblique mouth and the more incomplete lateral line. It 
is also a larger fish than Notropis cayuga. 

Twenty-four specimens varying in length from 1.31 to 2.83 inches 
were taken from the lower part of Gull Lake, Muskoka, and from the 
outlet just below the first falls. 

This species is new. It was discovered and taken by Dr. S. E. Meek 
in September, 1899. ; 

(38) Notropis heterodon. 

Body moderately stout, the back somewhat elevated; head rather 
pointed, the snout acuminate; mouth oblique, lower jaw _ projecting; 
lateral line usually more or less imperfect. Scales, 5-36-3. Teeth, 4-4, 
often crenate. 

Colour olivaceous; chin black; a blackish rostral band; sides with a 
dusky band. Length two and a half inches. 

Ranges from the St. Lawrence River westward. 

(39) Notropis fretensis. 

Slender, compressed; mouth oblique; eye three and a half in head; 
lateral line decurved. Scales, 6-35-3. Colour, olive, a plumbeous lateral 
shade and dark spot at base of caudal. Length two and a half inches. 

This somewhat doubtful species is recorded by Jordan and Evermann 
from the Great Lake region and Detroit Rivet. 


(40) Straw-colored Minnow. 
(Notropis blennius. ) 

Body slender, elongate, its greatest depth one-fifth of total length 
without caudal; head rather large; eye large; mouth small, inferior, hori- 
zontal, snout very obtuse. Scales, 5 to 6-32 to 38-4. D., 8to9; A., 7 to 8. 

Colour pale, olivaceous; sides usually pale, usually a darker dorsal 
band and a small dark blotch before dorsal, sometimes a plumbeous lateral 
stripe, but no caudal spot; fins all plain. Length about two and a half 

Range from the upper St. Lawrence through the region of the Great 
Lakes. Lake of the Woods (Evermann and Goldsborough). 

(41) Notropis volucellus. 

Body moderately stout. Head depressed, the snout rather long. Fins 
more elongate than in most related species, the pectorals reaching ventrals. 
Caudal peduncle slender. 

DO Acy Oo eSeales, A-3A=3. 

Colour, olivaceous, a slight dusky lateral shade; no dorsal stripe, 
fins plain. Length, two and a-half inches. 

This species has been found in the Detroit River. I have no other 
records from our. waters. 


(42) Spawn-eater. Smelt. 
(Notropis hudsonius. ) 

Body moderately elongate, compressed. Head conical, with short, 
blunt snout; mouth small, nearly horizontal, the lower jaw very slightly 
the shorter. The lateral line is slightly curved downward over the pec- 
toral, straight and median for the rest of its course. Caudal large and 
deeply forked, its middle rays half as long as the outer. Scales, 7-38-5. 
Teeth, 2, 4-4, 1 or 2, with a narrow grinding surface on at least two. 

Dee Se Ae SLOnG; Ve, 8.c2P at FAc 

Colour, pale olive, young always with a round black spot at base of 
caudal; sometimes a dark lateral band; fins unmarked. Length, ten 

Common and generally distributed in the lakes and larger streams 
from the upper St. Lawrence to Lake Superior. The northern form of 
Lake Superior is N. h. selene. 

(43) Silverfin. 
(Notropis whipplii.) 
Body moderately elongate, fusiform in the adult. Caudal peduncle 
short and stout. Head conical, compressed, snout pointed. Mouth mod- 


erate terminal, slightly oblique, jaws nearly equal. The caudal is large 
and moderately forked. The lateral line curves downward over the pec- 
toral. Scales 6-38 to 41-4; teeth, 1, 4-4, 1. Dl, 85yA Wo: Ve, 65 baer. 

Colour, bluish silvery; scales dusky edged; a dark vertebral line; a 
narrow and long black blotch on the membrane of the dorsal between the 
sixth and seventh and another between the seventh and eighth rays. 
Lower fins pale. Males in spring have the fins partly or wholly charged 
with white pigment and in the height of the breeding season the pigment 
in the dorsal has a greenish tint and the top of the head and snout is cov- 
ered with minute tubercles. 

Length, about four inches. 

It is found in the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes region. 


(44) Shiner. Redfin. Dace. 
(Notropis cornutus.) 

When young the body is moderately elongate, but it becomes deeper 
with age and much compressed; caudal peduncle short. Head short, deep 
and thin; mouth moderate, terminal, little oblique, lower jaw included; 
eye moderate; the lateral line descends in a long curve, becoming straight 
and median over the anal origin; caudal large and deeply forked. Scales, 
7-40 to 41-4. Teeth, 2, 4-4, 2, with narrow grinding surface. 

Ds05c AL Os Vis. One beamn se 

Colour, upper parts steel blue with a gilt line along the back; scales 
dusky at edge and base. The sides are bright silvery overlaid with a gilt 
line. In spring males the belly and lower fins are bright rosy and the head 
and nape covered with small tubercles. It attains a length of about eight 
inches; under favourable circumstances perhaps a little more. 

This handsome fish is abundant in all streams of any size throughout 
the Province, particularly so in those where rapids alternate with deep 
pools and eddies. 

It spawns in early summer on stony shallows. 

As a food fish it is of no value, its flesh being soft and tasteless, but 
it is unexcelled as bait for Maskinonge, Bass, etc. 

N. c. frontalis is the form commonly found in the lakes. 

(45) Notropis jejunus. 

Head four; depth, four and two-thirds ; eye rather large. Body rather 
slender ; head flattish above, the snout blunted and rounded; mouth rather 
large, oblique. 

Dorsal over ventrals; 16 scales before dorsal. 

De Oo Ao 75 SCales, 5-37-3sateeth, 2, 4q-anare 

Colour pale with a broad silvery lateral band overlying a plumbeous 
shade; dorsal sometimes punctulate. Length, three inches. 

(csnynusoo sidowjoxy) “AULT 




This species is recorded by Evermann and Goldsborough from Lake 
of the Woods and Rainy River. 

(46) Notropis atherinoides. 

Head, four and two-thirds; depth, five and a half; eye three and a 
quarter.. Body long and slender, compressed, the back not elevated. 
Head blunt, conic, proportionately shorter than in related species. Mouth 
moderate, very oblique, upper lip on level of upper part of pupil; maxillary 
about reaching front of eye. Eye large, rather longer.than snout. Fins 
low; dorsal well behind ventrals; tips of ventrals extending to beyond 
middle of dorsal. Lateral line decurved. 

D7 33 Au, IF; scales, -5-38-3; 15 before dorsal; teeth, °2,74-4, 2. 

Colour translucent green above; sides bright silvery; scales above 
faintly punctate, but not enough so to render them dark-edged, nor to 
form blotches along sides; a faint dark vertebral line; males in spring 
with the snout rosy. Length, four to six inches. 

This species ranges from the St. Lawrence River through the Great 
Lake region to Manitoba. 

(47) Notropis rubrifrons. 

Head, four; depth, four and three-quarters; eye, four. Body mod- 
erately elongate, the back scarcely elevated, caudal peduncle somewhat 
contracted. Head longer than in most related species, conic and rather 
pointed. Mouth rather large, very oblique, upper lip above line of middle 
of pupil, maxillary reaching to opposite eye. Eyé moderate, anterior, 
usually shorter than the sharp snout. 

D., 8; A., 10; scalés, 5-39-3, those before dorsal large, 15 to 17-in 
number; teeth, 2, 4-4, 2, little hooked. 

Colour olivaceous above; scales with darker edges; sides silvery; a 
dark vertebral line; a row of dark dots along base of anal; males with the 
snout tuberculate in spring; the forehead, opercular region and base of 
dorsal being then flushed with red. 

Length, two and three-quarters inches. ; 

This species is recorded from the St. Lawrence River and Lake of the 
Woods (Evermann and Goldsborough). 

Suscenus LYTHURUS. 
(48) Redfin Minnow. 
(Notropis umbratilis. ) 

Body compressed, the caudal peduncle long; head long, conical, 
rather pointed; mouth large, moderately oblique lower jaw somewhat pro- 
jecting; eye moderate; scales closely imbricated, crowded anteriorly ; 
dorsal fin high, inserted about midway between ventrals and anal; pec- 
torals not reaching ventrals; caudal long; lateral line much decurved. 

Scales,-9-40 to 52-3. Teeth, 2, 4-4, 2. D., 7; A., 11. 


Colour, dark steel blue above; pale or silvery below. A more or less 
evident black spot at base of dorsal in front; the fins otherwise all plain. 
Males with the anterior dorsal region and the head profusely covered with 
small whitish tubercles, the belly and lower fins being of a bright brick 
red in the spring. Females very pale olive, sometimes almost colourless. 

This species is recorded by Dr. Tarleton H. Bean as ranging from 
Western New York to Minnesota. It should therefore be found in the 
waters of Western Ontario, but as yet I have not seen it. Our form would 
probably be N. u. lythrurus. 

Genus RHINICHTHYS. (BLAck-NosED Dace.) 

Body moderately elongate and little compressed, with usually stout 
caudal peduncle and long, conical nose; head rather large, sometimes 
broad and flat above; eye small; mouth small, subinferior, the upper jaw 
fixed by the union of the upper lip to the skin of the forehead; end of 
maxillary with small barbel. Teeth, 2, 4-4, 2 (sometimes 2, 4-4, 1), those 
of the principal row usually hooked, without grinding surface. A short 
intestinal canal; scales very small; lateral line decurved, continuous ; 
dorsal origin slightly behind ventral; base of anal short. Small fishes 
inhabiting clear, cold, brooks and streams. 

(49) Long-nosed Dace. Niagara Gudgeon. 
(Rhinichthys cataracte.) 

Body elongate, subterete; caudal peduncle stout; head moderate; eye 
rather above median; mouth horizontal, small, placed under the snout, the 
lower jaw the shorter; upper lip thick; barbel evident but small; caudal, 
large and well forked; scales, 13-57 to 65-10. Teeth, 2,4-4, 2, three of the 
prncipall row hooked: (DialIbe7.. Ay. 165,V2,783 Es, 12: 

Colour, dusky olive, the back darker, below pale, some of the scales 
mottled irregularly with dark and olivaceous, no black lateral band in the 
adult, but in the young there is a trace of a dusky band. Males in the 
spring have the lips, cheeks and lower fins crimson. Length, about five 

This species is found from the Niagara River to Lake Superior. It 
is not uncommon at Sault Ste. Marie. 



Black-nosed Dace. ( Rhinichthys alronasus. ) 
(50) Black-nosed Dace. 
(Rhinichthys atronasus.) 

Body long, somewhat stout; head small, conical; eye small; mouth 
small, slightly oblique, with nearly equal jaws; the maxillary barbel small 


or wanting. The dorsal origin is nearer to root of caudal than to tip of 
snout; caudal small and not deeply forked. The lateral line curves down 
over the pectoral, soon becoming median. Scales, 10-56 to 63-10. Teeth, 
2, 4-4, 2, three of the principal row strongly hooked. D. II., 6 or 7; A. 
Pe 6 Nt Ook a ET. 

Colour dusky blackish, mottled above, whitish below, a black lateral 
band, bordered above and below by pale. Spring males have the lateral 
band and ventral fins crimson or orange. In some adult specimens I have 
the dark lateral band is entirely wanting. Dr. Philip Cox, of New Bruns- 
wick, who finds both this and the preceding species in that Province, says: 
‘“These two species are with us very closely related and present at all 

times such instability of characters as to suggest intergrading.’’ Length, 
about three inches. 

Very common in all streams of the Lower Lakes and St. Lawrence 
region. In the Upper Lake region it is represented by R. a. obtusus. 

GeNus HYBOPSIS. (Horny-HEaDs.) 

Body robust or variously elongate; mouth terminal or inferior, with 
lips thin or somewhat fleshy, a conspicuous barbel always present and 
terminal on the maxillary; a second barbel sometimes present on each 
side; premaxillaries protractile. Teeth 4-4 or 1, 4-4, 1, or 0; hooked, the 
grinding surface narrow or obsolete. Scales usually rather large; lateral 
line continuous. Dorsal inserted over, in front of, or slightly behind 
ventrals; anal basis short. Males usually with nuptial tubercles, and 
sometimes flushed with red. A large and varied group closely allied to 

Notropis, from which it differs chiefly in the presence of the small maxil- 
lary barbel. 


(51) Spotted Shiner. 
(Hybopsis dissimilis. } 

Body long and slender, caudal peduncle long and low; head long, 
snout obtusely rounded at the point; projecting beyond the small mouth. 
The gill openings are separated by a broad isthmus. Caudal moderately 
large and deeply forked. Barbels conspicuous. Scales, 6-43 to 47-5- 
Teeth, 4-4, hooked and with a short grinding surface. D. II., 8; A. II., 
Oran Site y Aina beens Ce 

Colour, above olivaceous, below silvery, the lateral band is dusky, on 
which are several dark spots; the band is carried forward through the eye 
and around the snout; fins pale. Length, about six inches. 

This species occurs in the Lower Lakes and rivers falling into them. 
It is probably more abundant in Lake Erie than elsewhere. 

5 F. 


(52) Lake Minnow. 

(Hybopsis storerianus. ) 

Body rather elongate; back elevated, ascending gradually to begin- 
ning of dorsal, then descending to the caudal fin; head short, interorbital 
space broad, flat; mouth rather small, horizontal, the lower jaw included ; 
barbel conspicuous; snout abruptly decurved, the tip thickened; lateral 
line somewhat decurved; fins high; dorsal inserted well forward, over 
ventrals ; pectoral fins pointed ; caudal long, deeply forked. Scales, 5-42-4. 
DiS eA. <8: 

Colour, greenish above; sides and below brilliant silvery; fins plain. 
Length, about eight inches. 

This fish has been taken in Lake Ontario waters aad also in Lake 
Erie, but I have no other records. 


Body elongate ; head normal, not depressed, the profile convex ; mouth 
terminal, noo a well developed barbel on the anterior side of maxil- 
lary, just above its tip. Teeth, 2, 4-4, 2, hooked without grinding sur- 
face. Scales rather small; lateral line continuous. Dorsal fin over or 
slightly behind ventrals; anal basis short. Size rather large. This genus 
is Closely related to the section Nocomis under Hybopsis, from which it 
may be separated by the presence of two teeth in the lesser row, by the 

position of the barbel, and by the smaller scales. Its relations with Semo- 
tilus are equally close. 

(53) Lake Chub. 

(Couesius plumbeus. ) 

Body moderately elongate and somewhat compressed; head rather 
flat above, not much raised above the level of the eyes; maxillary reaching 
to below front of orbit, a small barbel placed high at its tip; lower jaw 
included. Lateral line beginning high up on the nape, abruptly descend- 
ing to the median line over the pectoral fin, and thence running nearly 
straight to the caudal fin. Dorsal origin midway between tip of snout 
and base of caudal fin. Caudal deeply forked. Scales small, 13-65-8. 
eet 2 4-45 pe 

Colour dusky above, sides silvery with a plumbeous lateral band; fins 
plain. Length, about six inches. 

This species ranges through Canada from New Brunswick to Lake 
Superior and is tolerably common throughout; more especially north- 
ward. The Lake Superior form is C. p. dissimilis. 


Body rather short and stout, subterete; lower jaw three lobed, the 
dentary bones being close together and completely united, not forming a 


wide arch as in the minnows generally; upper jaw not protractile; pha- 
ryngeal bones small, the teeth hooked, and without grinding surface, 1, 4- 
4, 1. Scales moderate; lateral line complete. Dorsal origin is nearly 
over the beginning of the ventral ; anal fin short ; isthmus broad; gill rakers 
weak; pseudobranchial present, air bladder normal; alimentary canal 
short; peritoneum white. Size large. No marked sexual peculiarities ; 
the males with some black pigment in spring. One of the most strongly 
marked genera of Cyprinide. 

(54) Cut-lips. Stone-toter. 
(Exoglossum maxillingua. ) 

Body rather short, and stout; caudal peduncle short and deep. Snout 
short and obtusely conical, lower jaw included; eye small. Caudal mod- 
erately forked. Scales, 9-54-6. Teeth, 1, 4-4, 1. D., 8; A., 7. 

Colour, dusky olivaceous, darker above; a short and narrow dark bar 
above the root of pectoral; young with a dusky bar at the caudal base. 
Fins dusky, with pale extemities. 

This fish may be readily distinguished by the three-lobed lower jaw, 
the dentary bones being closely united and the lower lip represented by a 
fleshy lobe on each side of the mandible. 

Length, about six inches. 

The Stone-toter has not a very wide range; it is found in the St. 
Lawrence River and in Lake Ontario, but does not appear to be abundant. 

Genus CYPRINUS. -(Carp.) 

Body robust, compressed; mouth moderate, anterior, with four long 
barbels; snout blunt, rounded; teeth molar, broad and truncate, 1, 1, 3 
3, I, 1; scales large; lateral line continuous; dorsal fin very long, with a 
stout spine, serrated behind; anal fin short, also with a spine. Large 
fishes of the fresh waters of Asia; introduced into Europe and America 

as food fishes. 

(55) Carp. (Introduced.) 
(Cyprinus carpio.) 

Body stout, moderately elongate; head comparatively small; mouth 
moderate, the upper jaw not extending to front of eye; a barbel on the 
upper lip and another on the angle of the mouth at each side. Caudal 
strongly tonked. Stalese5-38-5 . Ds Ihe. Zo: ALTE 5 Vo Pere. 

Colour, above dusky, the sides and below golden olive. 

There are three varieties of this species, the German or Scale Carp, 
the Mirror Carp, and the Leather Carp, the distinction between them being 
based upon the scale arrangement. The Leather Carp is nearly without 
scales. The Mirror has a few scales of unequal size, irregularly placed; 


while the German variety has the body completely covered with scales, 
this last being the most abundant form in our waters. 

No greater mistake was ever made than the introduction of this fish 
into North American waters. In England, where it is well known, it 
was considered about the most worthless fish they had and one of the 
most dificult to get rid of, where once it had become established. On 
some parts of the continent of Europe, however, where good fish are 
scarce, the Carp was cultivated and fed in ponds with care and probably 
because the people knew no better, it was more appreciated. In this 
country, where fish of the highest quality should be obtainable by every 
one, there is no place for the Carp. 

De Kay states that it was first introduced into New York waters in 
1831. In 1870 it was taken to California and in 1877 the United States 
Fishery Commissioners imported a considerable number and propagated 
them only too successfully. Since then they have spread into all accessible 
waters and have become an unbearable nuisance wherever found, for not 
only are they damaging our fisheries, but also by reason of their destruc- 
tion of the wild rice beds they are causing the wild fowl to avoid the feed- 
ing grounds to which they formerly resorted during the autumn flight. 

The food of Carp consists principally of insects and vegetable matter, 
preferably, perhaps, of the seeds, young shoots and tender roots of 
aquatic plants; when feeding it constantly grubs up the bottom, thereby 
stirring the mud and keeping the water in such a dirty condition that none 
of our valuable fish will remain in it. 

The spawning season in our waters commences in June and seems to 
last until August. The fish are very prolific, make rapid growth, and 
attain a large size, specimens weighing over twenty pounds having fre- 
quently been taken in American waters, while in Europe they have been 
known to reach ninety pounds. 

Order APODES. (The Eels.) 

Teleost fishes with the premaxillaries atrophied or lost, the maxillaries 
lateral, and the body anguilliform and destitute of ventral fins. The. most 
striking feature is the absence of the premaxillaries, taken in connection 
with the elongate form and the little development of the scapular arch, 
which is not attached to the cranium. Other characters not confined to 
the Apodes are the following: The absence of the symplectic bone, the 
reduction of the opercular apparatus and of the palatopterygoid arch, the 
absence of ventral fins, the absence of the mesocoracoid or precoracoid 
arch, and the reduction or total absence of the scales. There are no 
spines in the fins, the gill openings are comparatively small, and there are 
no pseudobranchie. The vertebra are in large number and none of them 
are specially modified. The tail is isocercal; that is, with the caudal ver- 

tebrae remaining in a straight line to its extremity, as in the embryos of 
most fish. 

ae ae 
a ts RS “v2 
eo A 

(‘pdiisisyo nynbup ) “joy UBOLOULy 



The characters of this group are as given above. 


The true Eels are characterized by their conical head, well developed 
opercular apparatus, lateral maxillines, cardiform teeth, distinct tongue, 
vertical lateral branchial apertures, continuous vertical fins, with the dorsal 
far from the head, pectorals well developed, scaly skin, and nearly perfect 
branchial skeleton. 

The Anguillide approach more nearly than most of the Eels to the 
type of the true fishes. In one respect, however, that of the minute ova 
and concealed generation, they differ widely from these. 

Genus ANGUILLA. (EELs.) 

Body elongate, subterete, compressed posteriorly, covered with 
embedded scales which are linear in form and placed obliquely, some of 
them at right angles to others. Lateral line well developed. Head long, 
conical, moderately pointed, the rather small eye well forward and over 
the angle of the mouth. Teeth small, subequal, in bands on each jaw and 
a long patch on the vomer. Tongue free at tip. Lips rather full, with a 
free margin behind, attached by a frenum in front. Lower jaw projecting. 
Gill openings rather small, slit like, about as wide as base of pectorals 
and partly below them. Nostrils superior, well separated, the anterior 
with a slight tube. Vent close in front of anal. Dorsal inserted at some 
distance from the head, confluent with the anal round the tail. Pectorals 
well developed. 

(56) American Eel. 
(Anguilla chrysypa.) 

Body much elongated, round through most of its length, compressed 
behind; head conical, elongated; snout pointed; lower jaw longer than 
the upper; gill openings partly below the pectoral fins, small and slit-like. 
Scales imperceptible, deeply embedded and very irregularly placed. Lateral 
line very distinct. Colour above olive brown more or less tinged with 
yellowish, below grayish to pure white. Length, thirty inches. 

In our Province the Eel is only found in the St. Lawrence and Lake 
Ontario and their tributaries, the Falls of Niagara forming an insur- 
mountable obstacle to further progress inland. 

Until recently the reproduction of the Eel has been involved in mystery, 
but the careful investigations of competent observers have resulted in 
showing that the Eel spawns in salt water, usually on mud banks off the 


mouths of rivers, to which they resort in late autumn. When the young 
Eels are from two to three inches long they ascend the rivers in vast num- 
bers, travelling continually until they meet some obstacle which cannot 
be overcome. Professor Baird has estimated ‘“‘that in the summer one 
may see hundreds of waggon loads of young Eels at the foot of Niagara 
Falls, crawling over the rocks and squirming in the seething waters.’’ 
Where the obstruction to their passage permits it, the fish will leave the 
water and travel through wet grass in order to continue their journey. 

As a food fish Eels are justly esteemed and in the markets they always 
sell for a high price. 

Order ISOSPONDYLI. (The Isospondylous Fishes. ) 

Soft-rayed fishes with the anterior vertebra simple, unmodified, and 
without auditory ossicles; symplectic present; no interclavicles ; opercular 
bones distinct; pharyngeal bones simple above and below, the lower not 
falciform. _Mesocoracoid arch always well developed, forming a bridge 
from the hypercoracoid to the hypocoracoid. Bones of jaws developed, 
the maxillary broad, always distinct from premaxillary, and forming part 
of margin of upper jaw; no barbels. Shoulder girdle well developed and 
connected with the cranium by a bony post-temporal. Gills four, a slit 
behind the fourth. Air bladder, if present, with a pneumatic duct. Dorsal 
and anal fins without true spines. Ventral fins abdominal, sometimes 
wanting. Scales usually cycloid, sometimes ctenoid ; occasionally wanting. 
No developed photophores. Adipose fin present or absent. 

Famity HIODONTIDE. (THE Moon-eYEs.) 

Body oblong, much compressed, covered with moderate sized, bril- 
liant, silvery, cycloid scales. Head naked, short, the snout blunt. Mouth 
moderate, oblique terminal, the jaws about equal. Premaxillaries not pro- 
tractile. Maxillary small, slender, without evident supplemental bone, 
articulated to the end of the premaxillary and forming the lateral margin 
of the upper jaw. Dentition very complete; premaxillary and dentary 
bones with small wide-set cardiform teeth; maxillaries with feeble teeth ; 4 
row of strong teeth around the margin of the tongue, those in front very 
strong canines; between these is a band of short close-set teeth; vomer 
with a long double series of close-set, small teeth; similar series on the 
palatines, sphenoid and pterygoids; sides of lower jaw fitting within the 
upper, so that the dentaries shut against the palatines. Eye very large, 
the adipose eyelid not much developed. Preorbital very narrow. Nostrils 
large, those of each side close together, separated by a flap. Gill mem- 
branes not connected, free from the isthmus, a fold of skin covering their 
base. No gular plate. Branchiostegals eight to ten. Gill rakers few, 

( Hiodon tergisus. ) 



short and thick. Pseudobranchiz obsolete. Lateral line distinct, straight. 
Belly not serrated. Dorsal fin rather posterior; anal elongate, low; 
ventrals well developed; caudal strongly forked; no adipose fin. Stomach 
horseshoe-shaped, without blind sac; one pyloric cecum. Vertebra, about 
sixty. Air bladder large. No oviducts, the eggs falling into the cavity 
of the abdomen before exclusion. 

Genus HIODON. (Moon-eyveEs.) 

The generic characters are included above. 


(57) Mooneye. 
(Hiodon tergisus. ) 

Body oblong, much compressed; the belly with a slight but obtuse 
keel in front of ventrals and a rather sharp edge behind them; head short, 
snout rounded; eye large; caudal deeply forked. 

Dene ee Ae? LOnQ2) 

Colour, back bright olive green; sides and abdomen brilliantly silvery. 
Length, twelve inches or a little more. 

This species ranges from the St. Lawrence to Lake Superior and is 
particularly abundant in Lake Erie. It is a very handsome and good 
game fish, taking bait very readily, but its flesh is of no value as food. 


(58) Gold-eye. Northern Mcooneye. 
(Hiodon alosoides.) 

Body deep, much compressed; head short, eye moderate, the snout 
very blunt; mouth large and oblique, the maxilla reaching beyond the 
middle of the eye. The ventral edge of the body carinated. Scales, 6-56-7. 
DAO Nei 32: 

Colour, bluish above, sides silvery with a golden lustre. Length, 
about twelve inches. 

I have no positive record of the occurrence of this fish in Ontario 
waters, but I have no doubt that it will be found in the lakes and rivers 
near the Manitoba boundary. In Manitoba it is very abundant and is the 
best sporting fish found in the prairie rivers. It takes grasshoppers and 
small frogs, or even pieces of fish very readily, and in early summer rises 
well to an artificial fly. Its flesh is particularly well flavoured and firm 
and is much valued as food. 


Famity DOROSOMIDZE. (Gizzarp Suaps.) 

Body short and deep, strongly compressed, covered with thin, decidu- 
ous cycloid scales. Belly compressed to an edge, which is armed with 
bony serratures. Head naked, short, and rather small. Mouth small, 
inferior, oblique, overlapped by the blunt snout; no teeth; maxillary nar- 
row and short, with a single supplemental bone, not extending to opposite 
middle of eye, and forming but a small portion of lateral margin of upper 
jaw; mandible short and deep, its rami enlarged at base; premaxillaries 
not protractile. Gill rakers slender, exceedingly numerous, not very long, 
similar on all the arches. Gill membranes not united, free from the 
isthmus; branchiostegals about six; pseudobranchial large. An adipose 
eyelid. No lateral line. Dorsal fin about midway of the body, usually 
behind ventrals. Pectorals and ventrals moderate, each with an accessory 
scale. Anal very long and low; caudal forked. No adipose fin. Verte- 
bree, forty-nine. Stomach short, muscular, like the gizzard of a fowl. 

Genus DOROSOMA. (Gizzarp SHAD.) 

Body herring-like, much compressed and covered with moderately 
large, thin, cycloid scales. Snout short and obtuse. Head scaleless, short 
and small. Eye large and provided with an adipose eyelid. The belly 
is compressed to an edge, which is armed with sharp serratures. Mouth 
small, transverse; the lower jaw the shorter, jaws toothless. The maxilla 
does not extend to the middle of the eye. Gill rakers numerous, moderately 
long and slender; gill membranes C-aply cleft and free from the isthmus ; 
pseudobranchiz well developed; lateral line wanting. The dorsal fin is 
placed nearly over the middle of the body, slightly behind the origin of 
the ventral. Its last ray is produced into a long filament. The pectorals 
and ventrals are rather long and each is provided with an appendage 
formed of several elongate, overlapping accessory scales. The caudal is 
deeply forked. Anal very long, its last rays low. 

(59) Gizzard Shad. 

(Dorosoma cepedianum.) 

Body deep, compressed; the scales thin, deciduous ; head small ; snout 
short, blunt; mandible enlarged at base; gill rakers very slender, not very 
long ; an adipose eyelid. Dorsal about median, the filamentous ray nearly 
as long as head. Caudal widely forked, the lower lobe longer than upper ; 
belly sharply serrate. 

Colour, upper parts bluish; sides silvery, sometimes with golden reflec- 
tions; in the young there is a large dark blotch on each side not far behind 
the head; this disappears with age. 

Length, about fifteen inches; it sometimes attains a weight of about 
two pounds. 



This fish has worked its way from the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys 
through the canals to Lake Erie, where in some places it is not uncommon. 
It is a handsome species, but is of no value for food. 


Body oblong, or elongate, more or less compressed, covered with 
cycloid or pectinated scales. Belly sometimes rounded, sometimes com- 
pressed, in which case it is often armed with bony serratures. Head 
naked, usually compressed. Mouth rather large, terminal, the jaws about 
equal; maxillaries forming the lateral margins of the upper jaw, each com- 
posed of about three pieces. Premaxillaries not protractile ; teeth mostly 
small, often feeble or wanting, variously arranged. Adipose eyelid pre- 
sent or absent. Gill rakers long and slender; gill membranes not con- 
nected, free from the isthmus. No gular plate. Gills four, a slit behind 
the fourth. Branchiostegals usually few (six to fifteen). Posterior lower 
part of opercular region often with an angular emargination, the tips of 
the larger branchiostegals being abruptly truncate. Pseudobranchia 
present. No lateral line. Dorsal fin median or somewhat posterior, rarely 
wanting. No adipose fin. Ventrals moderate or small. Anal usually 
rather long; caudal fin forked. Vertebre, forty to fifty-six. 

Genus POMOLOBUS. (ALEwivEs.) 

Body oblong, more or less compressed; mouth moderate, terminal, 
the jaws about equal, or the lower projecting, the upper scarcely notched 
at tip; teeth feeble, variously placed, probably never wholly absent, man- 
dibles very deep at base, shutting within the maxillaries; gill rakers more 
or less long and slender, numerous; adipose eyelid present; scales thin, 
cycloid, deciduous, entire, rounded posteriorly ; cheeks with the free part 
longer than deep; dorsal fin rather short, nearly median, beginning in 
advance of ventrals, its posterior ray not prolonged in a filament; ventrals 
present; anal moderate; belly compressed, strongly serrated before and 
behind ventrals. 

(60) Gold Shad. Sawbelly. 

(Pomolobus chrysochloris. ) 

Body compressed, rather low, the caudal peduncle stout and the belly 
strongly serrated; head slender, rather pointed, lower jaw strongly pro- 
jecting, maxillary reaching posterior part of the eye. Eye large, nearly 
one-fourth the length of head; fins moderate, caudal deeply forked. Scales, 
15-52 to 58. 

Berl ere ey. eel heen oe 

Colour, above blue; below silvery, with golden reflections on sides. 
Length, about eighteen inches. 


The Gold Shad has made its way into the Great Lakes through canals 
from the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys, where it is abundant. 

Unlike most of its tribe, this is a predaceous fish, feeding largely 
upon small fry. It may be readily captured with minnow bait, but as a food 
fish it is not esteemed. 

(61) Gaspereau. Alewife. 
(Pomolobus pseudoharengus. ) 

Body deep and heavy forward, much compressed. Head short, nearly 
as deep as long; eye large, deeper than long. Maxillary broad; upper jaw 
emarginate, lower jaw slightly projecting. Anal low; caudal deeply forked, 
partially scaled near base. Scales, 15-50 to 54. D., 16; Auf 17 toni; 

Colour, above bluish; silvery on sides; a black spot behind head. On 
large specimens there are faint dusky lines along the rows of scales. 

Length, about ten inches, or rather more; in Lake Ontario, however, 
they rarely exceed eight inches in length. 

This fish is said to have been introduced into Lake Ontario in 1873 
by mistake, the intention having been to stock the water with shad. 
Whether this is correct or not, the Gaspereau is now firmly established 
here, and in spite of the vast numbers which die every summer, it seems 
to be increasing. From early in March until early in November they are 
to be found near the shores of Lake Ontario and in the St. Lawrence, but 
are at the height of their abundance during June and July, and it is during 
these months that the great mortality takes place, millions of dead fish 
being cast up on the shore and the surface of the water being liberally 
strewed with the dead and dying. Where they go in the cold months of 
winter is uncertain, probably only into the deep water of the lake, though 
it is possible that they may work their way down to the Gulf of St. Law- 

They are eatable, but being small and bony are not much appreciated. 

Genus ALOSA. (THE SHapD.) 

Body deep, compressed, deeper than in related American genera; the 
head also deep; the free portion of the cheeks deeper than long; jaws 
wholly toothless (except in young); upper jaw with a sharp, deep notch 
at tip, the premaxillaries meeting at a very acute angle. 

(62) Shad. 

(Alosa sapidissima. ) 

Body deep; mouth large, with the jaws about equal; gill rakers very 
long and slender. In the female the dorsal originates a little in front of 
the middle of the length, in the male somewhat farther in front. The 
dorsal of the male is rather higher than that of the female, while the body 
is not so deep. Scales, 16-60 to 65. The dorsal has thirteen divided rays 
and four simple, and the anal nineteen divided and three simple. 

(smPuaimyopnasd snqojomoc ) “nvodedsery 



Colour, bluish above; sides and below silvery; usually a dark. blotch 
behind opercle and often several in a row behind this; peritoneum pale. 

The Shad is an anadromous fish which passes most of its life in the 
ocean, migrating annually up the rivers for the purpose of spawning in 
the spring. It was formerly abundant in the lower Ottawa, but has 
abandoned that river and its occurrence within our boundaries is now only 

As a food fish it ranks very high, being one of the most esteemed fish 
of America. 

Famity SALMONIDA:. (THE SaLmons.) 

Body oblong or elongate, covered with cycloid scales. Head naked. 
Mouth terminal, large or small, varying much in the different genera; 
maxillary forming the lateral margin of the upper jaw, provided with a 
supplemental bone; premaxillaries not pretractile. Teeth various, some- 
times wanting. Gills four, a slit behind the fourth. Pseudobranchia 
present. Gill rakers various; gill membranes not connected, free from the 
isthmus; branchiostegals ten to twenty. No barbels. Dorsal usually 
nearly median, not greatly elongate, its rays nine to fifteen, only one or 
two of the anterior simple or rudimentary, the others branched; adipose 
fin present; caudal fin forked; anal fin moderate or rather long; ventrals 
moderate, nearly median; pectorals placed low. Lateral line present. 
Abdomen rounded in outline. Parietals not in contact; separated at middle 
by the intervention of the supraoccipital, which connects with the frontals ; 
epiplural appendages not developed. Air bladder large, stomach siphonal ; 
pyloric ceca very numerous. Ova large, falling into the cavity of the 
abdomen before exclusion. 

As now restricted, this is no longer one of the large families of fishes, 
put in beauty, activity, gaminess and quality as food and even in size of 
individuals, different members of the group stand easily among the most 
valuable of our fishes. 

The Salmonidz are confined to the northern regions and north of 
about 40° N. are everywhere abundant in suitable waters. Some of the 
species, especially the larger ones, are marine and anadromous, living 
and growing in the sea and entering fresh waters to spawn; others live 
in running brooks, entering lakes or the sea as occasion serves, but not 
habitually doing so; while others, again, are lake fishes, approaching the 
shore or entering brooks in the spawning season, at other times retiring 
to waters of considerable depth. Some of them are active, voracious and 
gamy, while others are comparatively defenceless, these latter can rarely 
be captured upon a baited hook. 

The large size of the eggs and their lack of adhesiveness, with the 
ease by which the eggs may be obtained and impregnated, render the most 
of the species especially adapted for artificial culture. 

6 F. 


The Salmonidz are of comparatively recent evolution, none of them 
occurring as fossils, unless it be in recent deposits. The instability of the 
specific forms and the lack of sharply defined specific characters may be 
in part attributed to their recent origin. 


Body oblong or elongate, compressed; head more or less conical, 
compressed, the snout more or less projecting beyond the lower jaw ; mouth 
small, the maxillary short, not extending beyond the orbit, with a well 
developed supplemental bone; teeth extremely minute, if present; scales 
moderate, thin, cycloid, rather firm. Dorsal fin moderate; caudal fin 
deeply forked; anal fin somewhat elongate; ventrals well developed. 
Pseudobranchiz large; gill rakers varying from short and thickish to long 
and slender; air bladder very large; vertebra, fifty-six to sixty; stomach 
horseshoe-shaped, with about one hundred pyloric caca; ova small. 

Most of them spawn in late fall or winter near the shore, at other 
seasons often frequenting considerable depths. 

The number of species of Coregonus has been overestimated and the 
geographical range and range of variation of each one are much wider 
than is generally supposed. 

All our species are highly valued as food and they probably constitute 
the most important class commercially of our fresh water fish. 

(63) Frost-fish. Round Whitefish. 

(Coregonus quadrilateralis. ) 

Body slender, elongate, subterete; head long, the snout compressed 
and bluntly pointed. Scales, 9-385-8. D., 11;-A., 10: 

Colour, upper parts dark bluish; sides silvery. 

Length, about twelve inches; it seldom attains much more than one 
and a-half pounds in weight. 

The Frost-fish is abundant in the Great Lake region from the St. 
Lawrence to Lake Superior and northward, and is everywhere highly 
esteemed as a food fish. 

It spawns in October and November, visiting the shallow parts of 
lakes and sandbars for that purpose. 


(64) Common Whitefish. 
(Coregonus clupeiformis.) 

Body deep, compressed; back always more or less elevated, notably 
so in the adult; caudal peduncle short; head small and short, the snout 
blunt and obliquely truncated. Scales, 8-74 to 80-9. Dorsal, ten divided 
rays; anal, eleven divided rays. 

(‘s1pdajppaponb snwobaiog ) “YSY-JSOd 

(srmlofiadnjs snuohr1o) )  “Ysye ty AA WoUIUTO,) 



a | 


Colour, upper parts pale olivaceous; sides and below white, some- 
what lustrous. 

This Whitefish under favourable circumstances reaches a large size. 
One taken in Lake Erie a few years ago measured thirty-three inches in 
length, twenty-five inches in cicumference, and weighed twenty pounds. 
One taken at Whitefish Point, Lake Superior, weighed twenty-three 
pounds. Another taken in Lake Erie in 1876 weighed seventeen pounds. 
Such fish are, however, now very rare in this Province. In Manitoba 
they are less uncommon, The average length of adults on our markets in 
these days will be about twenty inches and the weight about three pounds 
or a little more. 

It ranges through the Great Lakes region from the St. Lawrence to 
Lake Superior, and thence westward to Alaska; where it is replaced by a 
closely allied form; its northern limit is not positively known. 

Although this is one of the most abundant and at the same time the 
most valuable of our commercial fish, its habits are not yet fully under- 
stood; undoubtedly they vary very much according to locality; the depth 
of water, currents or their absence, and climatic conditions all having 
some influence on the movements of the fish in search of food, and upon 
the time and place of spawning. In some of our lakes there is a move- 
ment of the Whitefish in early summer from the deep water into shoal 
water near the shore; towards midsummer they retreat to the deep and 
cold parts of the lake, where they spend most of their time. In the autumn 
they again move in towards the shore, seeking their spawning grounds; 
these are chiefly rocky reefs and shoals, composed of what is known as 
honeycomb rock. It is said that gravelly and sandy shoals are sometimes 
resorted to for spawning purposes, but this is doubtful. 

Spawning takes place in October and November and may possibly be 
extended by some few individuals, or under exceptional circumstances, 
into December; both the time of spawning and of incubation depend 
largely upon the temperature. 

The autumn movement commences in September, but does not 
become general until October; the fish then continue to run in greater or 
less numbers until the spawning is ended, when they again retire to deep 
water for the winter. It is a curious fact that even during the spawning 
season a large number of Whitefish are always to be found in the deep 
water, but there is no evidence that they ever spawn there. 

(65) Sault Whitefish. 

(Coregonus labradoricus. ) 

Head, five; depth, three and a half to four; eye large. Gill rakers 
short, about two to two and a half in eye, 10+15 or 16. 

Body rather elongate, compressed, the back not elevated. Head 
rather small, slender, compressed. Mouth rather small, the lower jaw 
short, snout projecting; the maxillary reaching front of pupil; maxillary 


bone broad, rather short, its supplementary piece ovate. Mandible reach- 
ing middle of eye. Tongue with about three series of small teeth. Supra- 
orbital bone narrow. Dorsal fin high in front, the last rays short. 

ID 1d. Or 212); A. bison 1262 Scales: si0-716tou76-0: 

Colour, bluish black above; silvery below; scales with dark punctula- 
tions on the edges; fins all dusky, pectorals and ventrals pale at the base. 

Length, twenty-one inches. 

A very variable species, by some authorities considered indistinguish- 
able from C. clupeiformis. 

Generally distributed in cold, clear lakes and large streams, especially 

Genus ARGYROSOMUS: ‘(CiscoEs.) 

This genus is very close to Coregonus, from which it differs in the 
larger mouth and more produced jaws, the premaxillaries being placed 
nearly horizontally, and the lower jaw decidedly projecting beyond them. 
Gill rakers very long and slender, about thirty on lower limb; vertebra, 
fifty-five. These characters are associated with the geater voracity, and 
in general greater activity of the species of Argyrosomus. 


(66) Cisco. Lake Herring. 

(Argyrosomus artedi.) 

Body long, slender, and somewhat compressed; dorsal and ventral 
outlines but little arched; head pointed; mouth large, jaws subequal or 
the lower somewhat projecting; maxillary long, usually reaching to ver- 
tical of pupil. Caudal peduncle slender, but not much compressed; dorsal 
fin small; adipose fin slender, its width one-half its height. 

D., 11; A., 10 (counting only divided rays in dorsal and anal); V., 10. 
Colour, above dull bluish green; lower part of sides and below silvery 

white. Dorsal fin sometimes black tipped; caudal dusky at tip; anal and 
ventrals pure white. 

This species attains a length of about twelve inches and a weight of 
about one pound. Larger specimens have been recorded, but they are 

The Cisco ranges through the Great Lakes generally, but is most 
abundant in Lake Erie; it was formerly common in Lake Ontario. Of late 
years, however, it has not been taken there in any quantity. Its spawning 
season is in November and early December. 

(UpolD Sruosouby) “SUL PL OY’ 


(67) Long-jaw Herring. Lake Herring. 

(Argyrosomus prognathus. ) 

Body oblong, much compressed, back elevated, the body tapering 
rather sharply toward the narrow caudal peduncle; the adult having a 
slight nuchal hump as in C. clupeiformis; mouth large and strong; snout 
straight, its tip on a level with the lower edge of pupil; mandible very 
long, projecting beyond upper jaw when the mouth is closed; reaching to 
or beyond posterior edge of the eye; head rather short, deep and pointed; 
cranial ridges prominent, dorsal rather high; origin of dorsal nearer tip of 
snout than base of caudal. Scales rather large, about seventy-five in 
lateral line; seven or eight above the lateral line; seven or eight below the 
lateral line. Lateral line straight except at origin, where it presents a 
rather marked curve. 

Colour, sides of body uniformly bright silvery, with pronounced bluish 
reflection in life; back dusky; under parts pure white, without silvery. 
Above the lateral line the upper and lower edges of the scales finely punc- 
tulate with dark, the central part unmarked, producing light longitudinal 
stripes extending whole length of body. Fins flesh colour or pinkish in 
life, the dorsal and caudal usually showing dusky edges; postorbital area 
with bright golden reflection; iris golden, pupil black. 

DO sOLelO} wen TOntouio- 

Average length, about fifteen inches. 

This fish may readily be distinguished from any other white fish found 
in the Great Lakes by the general form of its body, together with the very 
long lower jaw. 

It is taken in all the Great Lakes except Lake Erie, from which as yet 
no specimens have been reported. In Lakes Ontario and Michigan it is 
particularly abundant, and is highly esteemed as a food fish. 

There is much difference of opinion among fishermen as to the spawn- 
ing time of the Long-jaw, which seems to extend over a prolonged period. 
Fish with matured roe have been taken as early as May 17th, and ripe 
fish have also been reported from Lakes Ontario and Huron late in June 
and through July. Very little is positively known as to the location of the 
spawning grounds of this species, though it is said that they are in deep 

(68) Black-fin Whitefish. 
(Argyrosomus nigripinnis. ) 

Body stout, fusiform; head and mouth large; lower jaw slightly 
projecting ; back not arched, profile from occiput to origin of dorsal fin 
very gently curved; eye rather large; teeth very feeble, but appreciable on 
the maxillaries and tongue. 

Dasa es Axe 2: 

Scales on lateral line, 73 to 77, above lateral line nine or ten, below 
seven or eight. 


Colour, dark bluish above; sides silvery, with dark punctulations ; 
fins all blue-black. 

This species may be readily known by its black fins. 

During the last few years the Black-fin has been occasionally reported 
from Lake Superior; its centre of abundance, however, appears to be 
Lake Michigan and the deep water lakes of Minnesota and Wisconsin. 

In its habits it resembles the other members of the group, swimming 
in shoals and depositing its spawn upon rocky bottom in November and 

It reaches a length of eighteen to twenty inches and is considered a 
good food fish. 

(69) Tullibee. Mongrel Whitefish. 

(Argyrosomus tullibee. ) 

Body short and deep compressed, the dorsal and ventral outlines 
similarly curved; head small, conic and compressed; mouth large, lower 
jaw slightly projecting. Scales larger on front of body than on caudal 
peduncle; free margins of the scales less convex than in other species, 
often emarginate, especially on anterior part of body. Lateral line straight 
and in a line with upper rim of. orbit; tongue with a patch of fine teeth 
near the tip; gill rakers numerous, long and slender. 

De TOMtOrl 2 Ae TaOipn2s 

Scales on lateral line, 68 to 74, eight or nine rows above and seven 
or eight below. 

Colour, iridescent bluish above, sides and under parts silvery; old 
individuals darker above, with some golden reflections on side; fins more 
or less evidently black tipped ; upper edge of pectoral margined with black. 

From all other Whitefishes the Tullibee may be distinguished by the 
short steep body and the closely imbricated scales. It attains a length of 
eighteen or twenty inches and a weight of about three and a half pounds. 
As a food fish it is highly esteemed, but its commercial importance is as 
yet limited. 

This species is usually called the Tullibee, but it is sometimes styled 
the “Mongrel Whitefish’’ on the erroneous supposition that it is a cross 
between the Whitefish and the Lake Herring. 

In the Great Lakes it is not at all common, occurring 1n limited num- 
bers in Lakes Erie and Superior only, but in the Lake of the Woods and 
through Manitoba and Assiniboia it is abundant. 

Mr. F. C. Gilchrist, in describing the habits of this fish in Western 
Canada, says: ‘‘In September they will be found gradually nearing the 
shoal water, feeding heavily, plump with fat and the now swelling ovaries. 
Later on they appear to eat little or nothing and devote all their time to 
playing until about the 25th of October, when they settle down to the 

(*jps Omppy) — “uOUTRg OF|URLLYy 


business of propagation, which is finished by November 1oth. ‘They prefer 
shallow water close to the shore, with clean sand to spawn on, and during 
the day they may be seen in pairs and small schools, poking along the 
shores, but at night they come in thousands and keep up a constant loud 
splashing and fluttering, very strange and weird on a calm night. Two 
years ago I| carefully counted the ova from a ripe fish two and a half pounds 
in weight, and found there were 23,700, closely resembling Whitefish eggs 
in appearance, but somewhat smaller. After spawning the fish are very 
thin, lank, dull in colour, and quite unfit for human food.”’ 

Genus SALMO. (SaLtmMon AND TROUT.) 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed; mouth large, jaws, palatines 
and tongue toothed, vomer flat, its shaft not depressed, a few teeth on the 
chevron of the vomer, behind which is a somewhat irregular single or 
double series of teeth, which in the migratory forms are usually deciduous 
with age; scales large or small, one hundred and ten to two hundred in a 
longitudinal series; dorsal and anal fins short, usually of ten to twelve 
rays each; caudal fin truncate, emarginate or forked, its peduncle com- 
paratively stout; sexual peculiarities variously developed, the males in 
typical species with the jaws prolonged and the front teeth enlarged, the 
lower jaw being hooked upward at the end and the upper jaw emarginate 
or perforate. In the larger and migratory species these peculiarities are 
most marked. Species of moderate or large size, black spotted. 


(70) Atlantic Salmon. 
(Salmo salar.) 

Body moderately elongate, symmetrical, not much compressed; head 
rather low and comparatively small; mouth moderate, the maxillary reach- 
ing just past the eye; in the young the maxillary is proportionately shorter. 
Scales comparatively large, rather larger posteriorly, silvery and well 
imbricated in the young, becoming embedded in the adult males. 

Colour: In the adult the upper parts are brownish or grayish, the 
sides silvery. Numerous x or x x shaped black spots on the upper half 
of the body, side of the head and on the fins. Males in the breeding sea- 
son have red blotches along the sides. In the young there are from ten to 
twelve dark crossbars mingled with red blotches and black spots. D., 11 
divided rays and 3 rudiments; A., g divided rays and 3 rudiments. Scales, 
2Q el 20,2 1. 

In the early pioneer days the Atlantic Salmon was abundant in the 
St. Lawrence and the Lake Ontario waters as far as Niagara Falls, which 
formed an insurmountable obstacle to their further progress. They may 
now, however, be considered as extinct in this Province. The destruction 


of the timber along the banks of the rivers and the consequent pollution 
of the water having fouled the spawning beds to such an extent that the 
fish can no longer resort to them. An occasional specimen is taken in 
Lake Ontario by the fisherman, but these visitors are probably merely 
wanderers from the hatcheries below. The range of the Salmon in Canada 
extends from Quebec eastward through the Maritime Provinces, thence 
northward along the Atlantic coast to Hudson Strait, and for about one 
hundred miles down the east coast of Hudson Bay. 

The usual weight of the Atlantic Salmon ranges up to about forty 
pounds, but specimens of sixty or more have been taken. The greater 
part of its growth takes place in the ocean, in which the fish spends about 
half its life. In the spring or early summer the adults enter rivers, work- 
ing their way up to shallow water, on a sandy or gravelly bottom. On 
this the eggs are deposited in late autumn, the spawning season beginning 
about the middle of October, and it may continue until December. The 
eggs are large, about a quarter of an inch in diameter, and very numerous, 
an eight-pound female yielding from five to six thousand eggs and heavier 
fish a proportionately greater number. The hatching period ranges from 
one hundred and forty to two hundred days, depending upon the tempera- 
ture. When newly hatched the fry are about three-fourths of an 
inch long. At two or three months old and about two inches long, 
they begin to show the vermillion spots and dark cross bands and are 
then called “‘parr’’; this name and colouration they retain while they 
remain in fresh water. In the second or third spring they assume a uni- 
form bright silvery colour and descend to the sea, at this stage being 
known as ‘‘smolt.’’ After remaining in salt water for a period varying 
from a few months to about two years, the fish may return to their native 
river, either as a “‘grilse’’ or ‘‘salmon’’ weighing from two to six pounds. 
Towards winter they again return to the sea, and from this time forward 
the migration from the sea to river head waters is performed annually. 

It is generally assumed that salmon take no food while in fresh water, 
yet they certainly rise readily enough to the artificial lure of the angler, 
more particularly when fresh run from the sea; therefore it seems probable 
that in the early part of the season the fish will feed, but that as spawning 
time approaches they, like some other species, cease to have any desire 
for food and devote themselves to the duties of reproduction entirely, for 
while on the spawning ground and after the ova are deposited the salmon 
grow lank and thin, losing all their beauty. In this condition they are 
‘“‘kelts’’? and valueless as food. 

(71) Steelhead Salmon. 
(Salmo gairdneri.) 
Body elongate, little compressed, much like S. salar in form; caudal 
peduncle short; head rather short, maxilla reaching far behind the eye. 

Pe a 


te Oe 
v1 ¥, . ; “ - 


(cysnohiniuny saaownsity) “qno4y, Sia | 


Eye small. Teeth rather small; vomerines in two long, alternating series, 
about as long as the palatine series; gill rakers short and stout; about 
twenty, on the first arch of which twelve are below the angle; dorsal origin 
much nearer to tip of snout than to base of caudal; adipose fin very small 
and narrow, over the beginning of the anal; caudal fin moderately forked 
in the young; ventral origin midway between tip of snout and base of 

D., 11; A., 12. Colour, olive green above, sides silvery, head, back, 
dorsal and caudal fins profusely covered with small black spots, no red 
between the rami of the lower jaw. 

I mention this fish because it has been introduced with marked suc- 
cess into Lake Superior and tributary waters by the United States Fish 
Commission, and specimens have been taken on our side of the lake, where 
it is to be hoped it will find a congenial habitat, for it ranks very high as 
a game and food fish, attaining under favourable circumstances a weight 
of about twenty pounds. 

Genus CRISTIMOVER. (Lake Trout.) 

This genus contains one, or perhaps two, species, large, coarse 
Charrs, distinguished from Salvelinus by the presence of a raised crest 
behind the head of the vomer and free from the shaft; this crest is armed 
with teeth. The hyoid teeth constitute a strong cardiform band. The 
typical species is a large Charr, spotted with gray, and found in the larger 
lakes of eastern North America. 

(72) Lake Trout. Salmon Trout. Gray Trout. Togue. Tuladi. 
(Cristimover namaycush.) 

Body long; caudal peduncle slender; head long, its upper surface 
flattened ; eye large, placed near top of head; mouth very large, the maxil- 
lary extending much beyond the eye; the origin of dorsal midway between 
tip of snout and root of tail; caudal fin well forked; adipose fin small; 
teeth very strong. 

Dr Onto,1e. A @ tO) tte Scales, about, 200, on lateral line: 

The colouration is extremely variable, generally grayish, sometimes 
pale and sometimes almost black, everywhere with rounded pale spots 
which are often reddish tinged; on the back and top of the head there are 
fine vermiculations resembling those of the Brook Trout. The dorsal and 
caudal with pale spots and dark markings. 

This species is found in nearly all the large lakes from New Bruns- 
wick west to British Columbia and north from Labrador through the 
Hudson’s Bay country to Alaska. It is the largest species of the family 
resident in fresh water, reaching a length of several feet and a weight of 
sixty pounds or even more, though specimens exceeding twenty pounds 
are now rare. 


The Lake Trout is one of the most rapacious of our fishes and will 
devour almost anything, though its principal food consists of Herrings, 
young Whitefish, and other soft-finned fishes. It frequents deep waters 
and is usually taken near the bottom. The spawning season varies some- 
what according to locality. In Lake Superior it commences early in Octo- 
ber, while in other lakes it is deferred until November, and continues into 
December. The spawning grounds are on the reefs of honeycomb rock 
in from ten to one hundred feet of water. 

There is a great difference of opinion as to its value as a game fish. 
Some anglers consider it affords a great deal of sport; others have no 
regard for it. I agree with the latter, having always found it a heavy, 
lumpish fish, with no fight in it. Commercially, however, it is of great 
importance, being always in demand and furnishes an excellent article of 

The variety Siscowet (C. n. siscowet) differs from the common Lake 
Trout in having a deeper body, which is covered with a thicker skin, 
beneath which is a great development of fatty tissue. The scales are 
somewhat larger and the colour usually paler. It is most frequently taken 
in Lake Superior, though examples are sometimes found in Lakes Huron 
and Erie. 

Genus SALVELINUS. (Cuarrs.) 

Body moderately elongate; mouth large or small; teeth of jaws, pala- 
tines, and tongue essentially as in Salmo, the hyoid patch present or not; 
vomer boat-shaped, the shaft much depressed, without raised crest, with 
teeth on the head of the bone and none on the shaft; scales very small, 
two hundred to two hundred and fifty in a lengthwise series ; fins moderate, 
the caudal forked in the young, truncate in some species in the adult; 
sexual peculiarities not strongly marked, the males with the premaxillaries 
enlarged and a fleshy projection at the tip of the lower jaw. Colouration 
dark, with round crimson spots, the lower fins sometimes with marginal 
bands of black, reddish and pale. 

The species of this genus are by far the most active and handsome of 
the Trout; and live in the coldest, clearest and most secluded waters. 
Some of them occasionally descend to the sea, where they lose their varie- 
gated colours and become nearly plain and silvery. 

(73) Brook Trout. 

(Salvelinus fontinalis.) 

The Brook Trout varies very much in the shape of the body, which 
is sometimes short and deep and sometimes long and thin. Head large, 
snout somewhat obtuse; mouth large; eye large, somewhat above axis of 
the body; caudal fin slightly lunate in the adult, forked in the young; 
adipose fin small and stout. 

(‘sypinjuof snuyaagy) -qnoay, Yoorg 


DAO eA, ©, Scales on lateral line: 225 to 235- 

The colouration is highly variable with age and locality. Upper parts 
usually grayish, much mottled or barred with dark olive or black without 
spots; on the sides numerous pale brownish blotches encircle small scarlet 
spots. Dorsal and caudal fins mottled with darker; lower fins dusky with 
a creamy white band anteriorly followed by a black streak; belly of the 
male often more or less red; sea run fish are often plain bright silvery. 

Brook Trout were formerly found in all the clear spring streams, and 
lakes fed by them, throughout the Province, but of late years, owing to 
the pollution of our waters and excessive fishing, its range is restricted to 
the unsettled districts, and except where it is artificially propagated and 
preserved it has ceased to exist in southern Ontario. As a game and food 
fish it is unexcelled, and angling for it is one of the most fascinating of 
outdoor sports. The size attained by this fish depends largely upon its 
habitat and food. In small streams it may mature at a length of six or 

eight inches and a weight of only a few ounces, while in large bodies of 

water, with an abundant food supply, they will reach eighteen inches or 
more in length and a weignt of from six to eight pounds. In Lake Nepi- 
gon and some of the rivers of that famous district very large fish are still 
commonly taken. 

In the cool days of late autumn the Brook Trout run up to the head 
waters of the streams and there on the gravelly shallows deposit their 
ova; the spawning season extending from September in the north to 
December in the south. The number of eggs produced depends upon the 
age and size of the fish. Yearlings (that is, fish in their second year) will 
produce from fifty to two hundred and fifty ova, while a large fish may 
produce as many as fifteen hundred. The eggs are about three-sixteenths 
of an inch in diameter and of a warm orange colour. The period of hatch- 
ing depends upon the temperature of the water, ranging from thirty-two 
days in water at 54° to one hundred and sixty-five days in water at 37°. 

In the early part of the summer Trout frequent the ripples and shal- 
lower parts of the streams, but as the temperature rises and hot weathe: 
sets in they retire to the deeper pools or the vicinity of cold springs, where 
they remain until the return of autumn starts them up stream again. 

Though commonly called Brook Trout, our fish is really a Charr and 
is Closely allied to, if not identical with, the famous Charr of North Britain 
and the continent of Europe. 

Order HAPLOMI. (Pike-like Fishes.) 

Soft-rayed fishes with the mesocoracoid wanting; the coracoids nor- 
mally developed, and the post-temporal normally attached to the cranium. 
Parietal bones separated by the supraoccipital. Symplectic present. Oper- 
cular bones well developed. Anterior vertebree unmodified. Scapular 
arch joined to the cranium by a post-temporal. Hypocoracoid and hyper- 
coracoid separate with developed actinosts. Pharyngeal bones distinct, 
the superior directed forward, three or four in number, the inferior not 


falciform. No interclavicles. Mouth with teeth. Air bladder with a dis- 
tinct duct. Ventral fins abdominal, rarely wanting; pectoral fins placed 
low; dorsal fin more or less posterior, the first ray occasionally stiffened 
and spine-like; no adipose fin.. Head usually covered with scales, like 
those on the body. Species chiefly inhabiting fresh water. 

Famity UMBRIDZ. (Mup Minnows.) 

Body oblong, broad anteriorly, compressed behind. Head large, 
flattened above. Mouth moderate, with bands of villiform or cardiform 
teeth on premaxillaries, lower jaw, vomer, and palatines; premaxillaries 
not protractile; lateral margin of upper jaw, formed by the broad, short, 
maxillaries, which are toothless and without distinct supplemental 
bone; lower jaw the longer. Gill openings wide, the membranes scarcely 
connected; gill rakers little developed; branchiostegals six to eight. 
Scales moderate, cycloid, covering head and body; lateral line wanting. 
Dorsal fin moderate, posterior, in advance of anal; ventrals small, close 
to anal; pectorals inserted low; caudal fin rounded. Stomach without 
blind sac; no pyloric ceca; pseudobranchie hidden, glandular; air 
bladder simple. Oviparous fishes, the sexes similar. Carnivorous fishes 
of small size, living in mud, or among weeds, at the bottom of clear, 
sluggish streams and ponds; extremely tenacious of life. 

Genus UMBRA. (MupFISHEs.) 

Body oblong, covered with cycloid scales of moderate size, without 
radiating striz; no lateral line; head shortish, little depressed; eye rather 
small; cleft of mouth moderate; ventral fins six-rayed, below or slightly 
in front of dorsal; anal fin much shorter than dorsal; pectorals rather 
narrow, rounded, placed low, with twelve to fifteen rays, which are much 
articulated ; caudal rounded; preopercle and preorbital with mucous pores ; 
branchiostegals six; gill rakers rather short, thick. Size small. 


Mud Minnow. (Umbra lini. ) 

(74) Mud Minnow. Do§fish. 
(Umbra limi.) 

Body comparatively short and stout. Head rather large, flattened 
above. Ventral fins slightly before dorsal; anal much smaller than dorsal. 


Colour, dull olive green, with about fourteen narrow pale bars (faint 
in young), a black bar at the base of the caudal. 

Common and generally distributed in muddy streams and inlets. The 
name is said to be derived from a habit this fish has of burrowing into the 
mud when the water evaporates from the ditches and ponds it frequents. 
It is seldom seen in clear water, preferring to hide at all times under 
stones or among weeds. It reaches a length of about four inches. 

Wierd As. 19; Ve.16; scales on lateral lime’ 35, ini transverse series 15- 

Famity LUCIIDAS. (PIKEs.) 

Body elongate, not elevated, more or less compressed posteriorly, 
hroad anteriorly. Head long, the snout prolonged and depressed. Mouth 
very large, its cleft forming about half the length of the head; lower jaw 
the longer; upper jaw not protractile, most of its margin formed by the 
maxillaries, which are quite long and provided with a supplemental bone ; 
premaxillaries, vomer and palatines, with broad bands of strong cardiform 
teeth which are more or less movable; lower jaw with strong teeth of dif- 
ferent sizes ; tongue with a band of smali teeth. Head naked above ; cheeks 
and opercles more or less scaly; gill openings very wide; gill membranes 
separate, free from the isthmus; gill rakers tubercle-like, toothed ; branchi- 
ostegals twelve to twenty. Scales small; lateral line weak, obsolete in 
young specimens, developed in the adult. Dorsal posterior, opposite and 
similar to anal; caudal fin emarginate; pectoral fins small, inserted low ; 
ventrals rather posterior ; vent normal ; no adipose fin; no barbels ; stomach 
not cecal, without pyloric appendages; pseudobranchie glandular, hid- 
den; air bladder simple. Basis cranii double. Fishes of moderate or 
large size. 

Genus LUCIUS. (PIKEs.) 

The genus Lucius is subdivided into three groups, distinguished by 
their size, scaling, and colouration. In the first group are three species 
of small Pike (commonly called by the Americans Pickerel), in which the 
cheeks and opercles are entirely scaly, the colour is greenish, usually with 
dark reticulations and the largest species reaches a length of about two 
feet. To this group the subgeneric name Kenoza is applied. Only one 
of these species has come under my observation in this Province, and it is 
probably very rare here. 

In the subgenus Lucius we have only the Common Pike (also called 
Pickerel by our American neighbors), the typical species of the genus, 
which has the cheeks fully scaled and the lower half of the opercles naked. 
The sides are pale spotted, on a darker ground, and it grows to a much 
larger size than any of the species of the Kenoza group. 

The subgenus Mascalongus contains only the Mascalonge, the largest 
member of the family. In this species the lower half of the cheeks as well 
as of the opercles is scaleless, and the scales are smaller than in those of 
the other groups. 



(75) Green Pike. 

(Lucius reticulatus. ) 

Body long and slender; caudal peduncle slender, its depth little more 
than one-third of greatest depth of body. Snout long and pointed. Caudal 
deeply forked. 

Ds, 14°>to 155 °A., 13 toerg. SSeales on lateral dinevabout 125.) a ue 
cheeks and opercles are completely scaled. 

Colour, green of various shades, sometimes very dark; sides (often 
with a golden lustre), marked with many dark lines and streaks which are 
mostly horizontal and by their junction with one another produce a reticu- 
lated appearance. A dark band below the eye. Fins plain. 

This small Pike does not seem to be at all common in our waters. I 
have taken a few in the neighbourhood of Toronto, but have not met with 
it elsewhere. It should be found in suitable places in Lakes Erie and 
Ontario. Its usual haunts are weedy streams, ponds and bays, where it 
lies in wait for the fish, frogs, and other living creatures upon which it 
preys. It is said under favourable circumstances to attain a length of two 
feet and a weight of eight pounds, but those I have seen were never more 
than half that size. As a food fish it is not generally appreciated, for its 
flesh seems to have absorbed too strong a flavour of the weeds among 
which it lives. 


(76) Common Pike. Northern Pike. 
(Lucius lucius.) 

Body elongate, but stout and well proportioned; head long, with well 
produced snout; caudal peduncle nearly equal to one-half depth of body. 
Eye nearly median. Mouth very large and strongly toothed; the tongue, 
roof of mouth, pharynx and gill arches bristle with teeth in cardlike bands, 
giving the fish extraordinary power in holding its prey. The dorsal and 
anal fins are near the caudal. Ventral fin midway between tip of snout 
and end of caudal fin. 

D., 16 to 20; A., 16 to 17. Scales on lateral side about 125. Cheeks 
entirely scaly; upper part of opercle scaly, the lower half bare. 

General colour greenish gray, with many white or yellowish spots, 
somewhat arranged in rows; dorsal, anal and caudal fins with roundish or 
oblong black spots. Naked part of the opercle bounded by a whitish 

Common and generally distributed throughout the Province in all 
waters where there are sufficient weeds to afford it shelter. 

The Pike is one of the most voracious of our fishes, feeding upon any 
form of animal life which it is able to overpower. Under favourable cir- 

(Lucius luctus. ) 

Common Pike. 


cumstances it attains a large size, specimens of more than forty pounds 
weight having frequently been captured in Europe. In Canada it does 
not grow so large, though in Manitoba, where it is commonly known as 
‘‘Jackfish.’’ Fish of twenty pounds were not very uncommon a few years 
ago. In Ontario it is so constantly pursued that it does not now get a 
chance to attain its full dimensions, and Pike of over ten pounds’ weight 
are becoming rare. 

Spawning takes place in early spring, as soon as the ice breaks up; 
the fish running up on to rush beds or grassy shallows for that purpose. 
The females are very prolific, one weighing thirty-two pounds was esti- 
mated by the late Professor Buckland to contain 595,000 ova. 

Many anglers profess to look upon the Pike with contempt and treat 
its claim to be considered a game fish with derision. This is because it is 
usually taken by them in the summer months, when it is not in good con- 
dition. It is then soft in flesh and weedy in flavour, but in the autumn, 
after the weeds have died down, it is a different fish; then its flesh is firm 
and good and its fighting powers will tax the angler’s skill to the utmost. 


(77) Mascalonge. Lunge. 
(Lucius masquinongy. ) 

Body elongate, though stout; caudal peduncle short and _ slender. 
Head large; eye nearly in the middle of length of head. Mouth very 
large, the maxilla extending to below the hind margin of the eye. The 
teeth are as in the Pike, but even more formidable. Dorsal and anal fins 
far back. Caudal deeply forked. D., 17; A., 15 to 16. Scales on lateral 
line, 150; cheek and opercle scaled above, but both naked on their lower 

Colour, dark grey, greenish or brownish, always darker on the back, 
lighter on the sides. Belly white or whitish. The fins usually have dusky 
spots or blotches, the lower fins and caudal are sometimes reddish. The 
body markings vary a great deal. In the young the upper half of the body 
is covered with small round black spots, which usually change their shape 
or disappear as the fish grow older. In mature fish the spots are more 
diffuse, sometimes enlarging to an inch or more in diameter, or by coales- 
cing, form vertical broad bands, while in others there are no distinct dark 
markings. All these various markings are found in fish from the same 
locality. The majority of Lunge in our waters are either unmarked or 
show faint bars, the spotted form being the most uncommon. 

The distribution of Mascalonge in our waters is somewhat irregular. 
It is found in the St. Lawrence about the Thousand Islands, in the waters 
of the Trent Valley, Lake Scugog, Lake Simcoe, and many of our inland 
lakes, but I have no record of its occurrence in any of the Great Lakes 


except Lake Erie and the Georgian Bay, where it is quite common. Its 
northern range is not yet clearly defined, but does not probably extend 
beyond the height of land. 

Spawning takes place early in spring, soon after the ice goes out, in 
shallow water about the reed beds. Here the females deposit a large 
number of eggs, from which the fry hatch in from fifteen to thirty days, 
according to temperature. 

The ‘‘Lunge’”’ is, except at pairing time, a solitary fish, usually lying 
concealed among aquatic plants at the sides of channels, or in open lakes, 
beneath shelving rocks, from whence it darts upon every living thing 
unfortunate enough to come within its reach and small enough to become 
its prey. 

When taken in the autumn, at which time it is in high condition, its 
flesh is firm, flaky and of good flavour, and its fighting qualities at their 
very best. In summer it affords comparatively little sport and its flesh is 
apt to taste weedy. 

Under favourable circumstances Mascallonge attain an immense size, 
fish of eighty to one hundred pounds’ weight having been taken in various 
places. We do not often see such monsters now, but specimens ranging 
from thirty to fifty pounds are captured every season. 


Body oblong, or moderately elongate, compressed behind, depressed 
forward, covered with rather large cycloid scales, which are adherent and 
regularly arranged. Lateral line wanting or represented by a few imper- 
fect pores. Head scaly at least above. Mouth terminal, small, the lower 
jaw usually projecting ; margin of the upper jaw formed by the premaxil- 
laries only; premaxillaries strong, extremely protractile. Teeth incisor- 
like or villiform, sometimes present on the vomer, but usually in the jaws 
only; lower pharyngeals separate, with cardiform or rarely molar teeth; 
third upper pharyngeal enlarged, the fourth wanting or united to the third. 
Gill membranes somewhat connected, free from isthmus; gill rakers very 
short, thick. Branchiostegals four to six. Pseudobranchiz none. Dorsal 
fin single, inserted posteriorly, of soft rays only, rarely with a single spine, 
or rudimentary spinous dorsal; caudal fin not forked; ventral fins abdom- 
inal, rarely wanting; pectoral fins inserted low; no adipose fin. Stomach 
siphonal, without pyloric appendages. Air bladder simple, often wanting. 
Basis cranii simple. Sexes usually unlike, the fins being largest in the 
males, but in some species the females are much the larger. 


Body rather elongate, little elevated, compressed behind ; mouth mod- 
erate, the lower jaw projecting; jaws each with two or more series of 

(‘Hbuounbsnu snowy) -a8uopwoseyy 


pointed teeth, usually forming a narrow band, bones of the mandible 
firmly united; scales moderate; gill opening not restricted above, the 
opercle with its margin not adnate to shoulder girdle; preopercle, pre- 
orbital, and mandible with mucous pores; dorsal and anal fins similar, 
small, or rather large, the dorsal inserted either in front of, abcve, or 
behind, the front of anal; ventrals well developed; air bladder present ; 
sexes differing in colour, size and development of the fins, the anal fin in 
the male normal; intestinal canal short; first superior pharyngeal without 
teeth, second with teeth, third and fourth codssified, with teeth. Species 
very numerous, mostly American, inhabiting fresh waters and arms of 
the sea. They are oviparous. 



Killifish. (Fundulus diaphanus. ) 

(78) Killifish. Fresh-water Killy. 

(Fundulus diaphanus.) 

Body rather slender; head flat above; mouth very protractile, small, 
its width somewhat greater than the length of the lower jaw. fins low, 
the dorsal midway between the tip of the snout and the root of the caudal. 
The anal is wholly under the dorsal. Caudal large, convex behind. 

D., 14; A., 12. - Scales on lateral line, 46. 

The females are olivaceous, sides silvery, with fifteen to twenty-five 
narrow dark crossbands; fins pale. In the breeding season the males are 
olive with about twenty pearly white cross bars. 

Abundant in bays and shallow inlets near the lakes; usually found 
quite close to the shore line, associated in small shoals. A fairly good 
bait fish, though not as attractive as the bright shiners and chub. 

This species attains a length of about four inches. 

Order HEMIBRANCHII. (The Half-gills.) 

Interclavicles developed. Gills pectinate. Post-temporal simple, not 
furcate; supraclavicle quite small. Superior pharyngeal bones reduced in 

8 F. 


number, the bones of the gill arches also reduced except in Gasterosteide ; 
inferior pharyngeals present, not united. Ventral fins abdominal or sub- 
abdominal, joined to the interclavicle, or else detached from it through 
partial atrophy of the shoulder girdle. Mouth bounded above by premax- 
illaries only ; shoulder girdle simple in structure. Basis of cranium simple 
and without tube; four anterior vertebrae more or less elongate; snout 
usually more or less produced, the small mouth at its end. 


Body more or less fusiform, somewhat compressed, tapering behind 
to a slender caudal peduncle. Head moderate, the anterior part not greatly 
produced, but all the bones of the suspensory apparatus somewhat leng- 
thened. Mouth moderate, with the cleft oblique, the lower jaw prominent ; 
maxillary bent at right angles and overlapping the premaxillary at corner 
of mouth. Teeth sharp, even, in a narrow band in each jaw; no teeth on 
vomer or palatines; premaxillaries protractile. Preorbital rather broad; 
suborbital plate large, often covering the anterior part of the cheeks, form- 
ing a connection with the preopercle. Branchiostegals three. Gill mem- 
branes broadly joined, free from the isthmus, or not; gill rakers moderate 
or rather long. Opercles unarmed. Skin naked or with vertically oblong 
bony plates; no true scales. Dorsal fin preceded by two or more free 
spines; anal similar to soft dorsal, with a single spine; ventral fins sub- 
abdominal, consisting of a stout spine and one or two rudimentary rays. 
Middle or sides of belly shielded by the pubic bones. Pectorals rather 
short, unusually far behind the gill opening, preceded by a quadrate naked 
area which is covered with shining skin, Caudal fin narrow, usually lun- 
ate. Air bladder simple; a few pyloric ceca. Vertebra, thirty to thirty- 
five; anterior vertebrz little enlarged. Small fishes inhabiting the fresh 
waters and arms of the sea, noted for their pugnacity. 

They are exceedingly destructive of the spawn and fry of larger 

Most of the Sticklebacks build elaborate nests, which the male fish 
defends with much spirit. The species are extremely variable, being appar- 
ently readily affected by changes in surroundings. 


Fresh-water Sticklebacks, feebly armed ,the skin not mailed, the dorsal 
spines few and nondivergent; the gill membranes forming a free fold 
across the isthmus; pubic bones fully united. One species known. 


(79) Brook Stickleback. 

(Eucalia inconstans. ) 

Body elongated, rather stout; the caudal peduncle without keel; skin 
entirely smooth, The ventral spines and pubic bones are very small, the 
latter concealed under the skin. The thoracic processes covered by the 
skin, slender and widely separated. Dorsal spines short, nearly equal in 
length, placed in a straight line, the anterior spines shortest. Ventral 
spines small and serrated. 

Ds shRe tor PVE cls, os AG T1203 

Males in the breeding season jet black, tinged with coppery red. The 
females and young are greenish, variegated with darker. 

Common in small streams and ponds, where it secretes itself among 
water plants, ready at any moment to attack any small fish which 
approaches its lair, or to dart upon passing insects small enough to become 
its prey. 

This species is a nest builder and is particularly vigorous in the 
defence of its eggs or young. It grows to a length of two and a-half 

Genus PYGOSTEUS. (Many-spinep STICKLEBACKS. ) 

This genus is characterized by the presence of nine to eleven divergent 
spines and by the weakness of its innominate bones. As in Eucalia, the 
gill membranes form a broad fold across the isthmus. 

Ten-spined Stickleback. ( Pygosteus pungitius. ) 

(So) Ten-spined Stickleback. 
(Pygosteus pungitius. ) 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed. The dorsal spines are all in 
the same line in a furrow, but they diverge so as to form a zigzag series. 
Pubic bone weak, lanceolate, not serrate; ventral spines slender, pun- 
gent, finely serrate above and below; gill membranes free from isthmus 
behind; gill rakers long and slender; caudal fin lunate, slightly emargin- 

Die IXe toms, 1... 2A. 1... -8. 


Colour brownish above, punctulate and irregularly barred with black. 
Tail keeled. Length about three inches. In the breeding season the male 
becomes rosy beneath. 

Not particularly common in this Province, but generally distributed 
through the region of the Great Lakes. It is said to be abundant in the 
streams of the Atlantic coast and in the fresh waters of the Arctic regions. 


Sticklebacks with the innominate bones coalescent on the median line 
of the belly, behind and between the ventral fins, forming a triangular or 
lanceolate plate. Gill membranes united to the isthmus; tail slender, and 
usually keeled; skin variously covered with bony plates; dorsal spines 
strong, with nondivergent bases. Species numerous and highly variable, 
those found in the sea usually with the body completely mailed, the fresh 
and brackish water forms variously mailed, or even altogether naked. 


Two-spined Stickleback. ( Gasterosteus bispinosus. ) 

(81) Two-spined Stickleback. 

(Gasterosteus bispinosus.) 

Body fusiform, moderately elongate and compressed ; caudal peduncle 
short, slender and distinctly keeled. The sides are covered with about 
thirty-three bony plates. The processes from the shoulder girdle cover 
the breast except a small naked area between them. At the base of each 
dorsal spine is a large rough bony plate to which the spine is hinged in 
such a way that it may be fixed and immovable at the will of the fish. The 
pelvic bone is lanceolate. The spines are all closely serrated, those in 

front of the anal and soft dorsal smallest. At the base of the ventral spine 
there is a cusp. 

Pe Tt ietoura ea Anmiemo: 

Colour, greenish olive, lighter on the sides, lower parts silvery. Gill 
covers silvery, with dusky markings; iris silvery; pupil black; fins pale. 


In the breeding season the male is brilliant bluish or greenish above, with 
indistinct dark bars and generally bright red below. Length in our waters 
about three inches. 

Rather common in spring in the streams and inlets of Lake Ontario, 
but I have not found it elsewhere. Its centre of abundance in America is 
along the North Atlantic coast, where it is found in all the streams from 
New Jersey to Labrador. The male of this species constructs a rather 
elaborate nest, of sand, pieces of sticks, weeds, etc., in which the female 
deposits her ova. When this is done the male stands guard over it, fanning 
with his fins to promote circulation of the water, only leaving his post to 
dart at an intruder or secure some small insect for food. 

Order ACANTHOPTERI. (The Spiny-rayed Fishes.) 

Anterior vertebrae unmodified and without ossicula auditus; no meso- 
coracoid and no interclavicles so far as known. Border of mouth formed 
by premaxillary ; maxillary normally distinct from it and always present, 
but sometimes codssified with it. Gills laminated. Shoulder girdle 
attached to the skull by a post temporal, which is normally furcate and 
usually not codssified with the skull. Hypercoracoid and hypocoracoid 
distinct, ossified, the former usually perforate. Pharyngeals well devel- 
oped, the lower rarely united, the third upper pharyngeal largest, the 
fourth often wanting. Pectoral actinosts always present, opercular appa- 
ratus complete; gill openings in advance of the pectorals; pectoral fins 
above the plane of the abdomen; ventral fins more or less anterior, nor- 
mally attached by the pelvis to the shoulder girdle, typically with one 
spine and five rays, sometimes wanting, sometimes without spine or with 
many rays, or otherwise modified. Anterior rays of dorsal and anal typi- 
cally simple or spinous, but all the fin rays often articulate. Air bladder 
typically without duct in the adult. Scales various, typically ctenoid ; 
lateral line usually running high. 

Suborder SALMOPERCZE. (The Trout Perches.) 

Ventrals abdominal, each with a short simple ray; dorsal with two 
simple rays or spines; anal with one or two; mouth formed as in Percoid 
fishes, the simple toothless maxillary not forming part of its border. Adi- 
pose fin present. Scales ctenoid; head naked; pseudobranchiz present. 
Air bladder apparently with a rudimentary duct. Stomach siphonal, with 
a few ceca. Shoulder girdle without mesocoracoid, apparently of the 
normal percoid type; vertebra about thirty-five. 



Body moderately elongate, somewhat compressed, the caudal peduncle 
long and slender. Head conical, pointed, naked. Mouth small, hori- 
zontal; maxillary short, narrow, without supplemental bone, not reaching 
to the large eye; margin of upper jaw formed by premaxillaries alone, 
which are short and not protractile. Teeth very small, villiform on pre- 
maxillaries and lower jaw only. Tongue short, adherent. Gill membranes 
separate; free from the isthmus. Pseudobranchie present. Branchio- 
stegals six. Gill rakers short, tubercle-like. Opercle with entire edges. 
Lower limb of the preopercle well developed, the angle nearly a right 
angle, its inner edge with a raised crest, its outer edge crenulate or with 
a few spines. Bones of the head cavernous; cranium with a raised crest, 
which does not extend to the occiput. Scales moderate, rather firm, adher- 
ent, their edges strongly ctenoid. Lateral line continuous. Dorsal short, 
median with two spines, slender or stout; ventrals anterior, just in front 
of the dorsal, with one rudimentary spine and about eight rays; pectorals 
narrow, placed rather high; anal small, with one or two spines; caudal 
forked; adipose fin present, small. Vertebre about thirty-five. First 
superior pharyngobranchial without teeth; second, third, and fourth separ- 
ate, with teeth. Lower pharyngeals separate. Stomach siphonal, with 
about ten well developed pyloric ceca. Ova unusually large, not falling 
into the abdominal cavity before exclusion. Air bladder present, with a 
band of connective tissue which is apparently with a rudimentary duct. 
Small fishes of the fresh waters of the cooler parts of America. This group 
is one of special interest, as it combines with ordinary salmonoid charac- 
ters, the structure of the head and mouth of a Percoid. 


Body rather slender, pellucid, covered with rather thin scales; dorsal 
fin with two slender spines or simple rays; anal with one; scales roughest 
posteriorly ; lateral line developed; preopercle entire or very nearly so. 

(82) Trout Perch. Sand Roller. 

(Percopsis guttatus.) 

Body rather long, moderately compressed, covered with thin ctenoid 
scales; head scaleless and without barbels; gill openings wide; opercles 
well developed; gill rakers short, tubercular; skull highly cavernous; 
mouth small, the margin of the upper jaw formed by the short non-pro- 
tractile intermaxillaries; no supplemental maxillary bone; small villiform 



teeth on the intermaxillaries and mandible. Tongue short, not free at tip. 
Six branchiostegals. Lateral line continuous. The first dorsal over middle 
of body. Adipose fin small; caudal long, forked; pectorals narrow, placed 
high. The stomach is siphonal, with numerous pyloric ceca. The eggs 
are moderately large and are excluded through an oviduct. Air bladder 
present. Lower jaw included. 

Dieu eo. Scales on-laterall line. 47° £01.50. 

Colour, upper parts pale olivaceous or brown, marked with rounded 
dark spots, made up of minute dots; a silvery median stripe, becoming 
obsolete in front; peritoneum silvery. Attains a length of about eight 

I have not found this fish common anywhere in Ontario, though it 
ranges all through the Great Lakes and their tributaries north to Hudson 
Bay. It is perhaps more abundant in the Moira River, near Belleville, 
than elsewhere in our Province, and is said to be frequently taken in the 
clear cold waters of Lake Superior. 

It is too small to be of much value to anglers, though it takes bait 
readily and is used for food by those who care for such small game. To 
the naturalist it is interesting, combining as it does the characteristics of 
the Salmon and some of the Perches. 

It spawns in the spring, running up the streams for that purpose. 

Suborder XENARCHI. (The Pirate Perches.) 

Structure of mouth and skeleton, so far as known, essentially that of 
the Percoid fishes. Dorsal fin single, with a few small spines; ventrals 
thoracic, with a small spine, and more than five soft rays. Air bladder 
large and adherent. Intestinal canal ending at the throat in the adult, the 
vent variously posterior in the young. Vertebra, twenty-nine. 


Body oblong, elevated at the base of the dorsal, compressed behind ; 
the head thick and depressed ; the profile concave. Caudal peduncle thick ; 
mouth moderate, somewhat oblique, the lower jaw projecting; maxillary 
reaching to anterior border of the eye. Teeth in villiform bands on jaws, 
vomer, palatines and pterygoids. Premaxillaries not protractile; maxil- 
laries small, without evident supplemental bone. Preopercle and _pre- 
orbital with their free edges sharply serrate; opercle with a spine. Bones 
of skull somewhat cavernous. Sides of the head scaly. Lower pharyn- 
geals narrow, separate, with villiform teeth. Gill membranes slightly 


joined to the isthmus anteriorly. Gill rakers tubercle-like, dentate. 
Pseudobranchie obsolete. Gills four, a small slit behind the fourth. 
Branchiostegals six. Scales moderate, strongly ctenoid, adherent. Lateral 
line imperfect or wanting. Vent always anterior, its position varying 
with age, from just behind the ventral fins in the young to below the pre- 
opercle in the adult. Dorsal fin single, median, high, with but three or 
four spines, which are rapidly graduated, the first being very short. Anal 
small, with two slender spines; ventral fins thoracic, with a very short 
spine, the number of soft rays usually seven; caudal fin rounded behind. 
Air bladder simple, large, adherent to the walls of the abdomen. Pyloric 
ezca, about twelve. 

The characters of the genus are included above. 

(83) Pirate Perch. 
(Aphredoderus sayanus.) 

Body moderately stout, oblong, somewhat compressed posteriorly. 
Scales ctenoid. Dorsal fin continuous, its origin much in advance of the 
middle of the total length; the anterior spines much the shortest. Mouth 
large for the size of the fish, the lower jaw somewhat longer than the 
upper ; the maxilla reaches to front of eye; jaws, vomer and palatine bones 
with villiform bands of teeth. Lateral line wanting. Caudal rounded. 

DoS res AS eG: Scalesvon lateral tines 74Stom5e: 

Colour, variable, sometimes olivaceous, at other times dark brown 
with numerous dark punctulations; a dark bar at the base of the caudal 
followed by a light one. It reaches about four inches in length. 

I include this species, though there are no Ontario records of its 
occurrence here known to me. It should, however, be found in the streams 
of the Niagara district and at the western end of Lake Erie. It frequents 
sluggish streams and ponds in which aquatic weeds abound, and 1s 
remarkable because the position of the vent varies with age. In the 
young it is behind the ventrals, while in the adult it is in the throat. 


Ventral fins abdominal, each of one spine and five rays; branchial 
arches well developed, the bones all present except the fourth superior 
branchihyal. Third superior pharyngeal much enlarged; lower pharyn- 
geals distinct. Scales cycloid. Pectorals elevated, about on a level with 
the upper posterior angle of operculum; spinous dorsal usually present. 



Body rather elongate, somewhat compressed, covered with scales of 
moderate or small size, which are usually, but not always, cycloid. No 
lateral line; some scales often with rudimentary mucous tubes. Cleft of 
the mouth moderate. Teeth small, on jaws and sometimes on vomer and 
palatines, rarely wanting. Premaxillaries protractile or not. Opercular 
bones without spines or serrature. Gill openings wide, the gill membranes 
not connected, free from the isthmus; gills four, a slit behind the fourth. 
Pseudobranchiz present; gill rakers usually long and slender. Branchio- 
stegals five or six. Dorsal fins two, well separated; the first of three to 
eight slender flexible spines, the second of soft rays; anal with a weak 
spine, similar to the soft dorsal, but usually larger; ventrals small, abdom- 
inal, not far back, of one small spine and five soft rays; pectorals moderate, 
inserted high. Air bladder present. No pyloric ceca. Vertebre numer- 
ous, usually about 23+23=46; third and fourth superior pharyngeals 
coéossified with teeth. All the species have a silvery band along the side ; 
this is sometimes underlaid by black pigment. 


Jaws prolonged, both of which are produced into a short depressed 
beak. The scales are small, their edges entire. 

(84) Silversides. Skipjack. 
(Labidesthes sicculus.) 

Body very slender, elongate. Caudal deeply forked. 

Dees ma AC e232) = Seales on lateral lines 75. 

Colour, green, the fish in life translucent, upper parts dotted. A 
very distinct silvery lateral band edged above with lead colour; cheeks 
silvery. Length, about four inches. 

This species is found in Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and the Detroit 
River, and may be generally distributed throughout the Great Lake region. 
As a food fish for larger species it is important. 


A group of fishes of diverse habits and forms, but on the whole repre- 
senting better than any other the typical Acanthopterygian fish. The 
group is incapable of concise definition, or in general, of any definition at 
all; still most of its members are definitely related to each other, and bear 
in one way or another a resemblance to the typical form, the Perch, or 
more strictly to its marine relatives, the Sea Bass or Serranide, The 
following analysis gives most of the common characters of the group: 


Body usually oblong, covered with scales, which are typically ctenoid, 
not smooth or spinous, and of moderate size. Lateral line typically pre- 
sent and concurrent with the back. Head usually compressed laterally 
and with the cheeks and opercles scaly. Mouth various, usually terminal 
and with lateral cleft, the teeth various, but typically pointed, arranged 
in bands on the jaws, vomer, and palatine bones; gill rakers usually sharp, 
stoutish, armed with teeth; lower pharyngeal almost always separate, 
usually armed with cardiform teeth; third upper pharyngeal moderately 
enlarged, elongate, not articulated to the cranium, the fourth typically 
present; gills four, and a slit behind the fourth; gill membranes free from 
the isthmus, and usually not connected with each other; pseudobranchize 
typically well developed. Branchiostegals few, usually six or seven. No 
bony stay connecting the suborbital chain to the preopercle. Opercular 
bones all well developed, normal in position, the preopercle typically ser- 
rate. No cranial spines. Dorsal fin variously developed, but always with 
some spines in front, these typically stiff and sharp. Anal fin typically 
short, usually with three spines, sometimes with a larger number, some- 
times with none; caudal fin various, usually lunate; pectoral fins well 
developed, inserted high; ventral fins always present, thoracic, separate, 
almost always with one spine and five rays. Air bladder usually present, 
without air duct in the adult; simple and generally adherent to the walls 
of the abdomen. Stomach cecal, with pyloric appendages, the intestines 
short in most species, long in the herbivorous forms. Vertebral column 
well developed, none of the vertebra specially modified; shoulder girdle 
normally developed, the post temporal bifurcate, attached to the skull, but 
not codssified with it; none of the epipleural bones attached to the centre 
of the vertebra; coracoids normal; the hypercoracoid always with a 
median foramen, the basal bones of the pectoral (actinosts or pterygials) 
normally developed, three or four in number, hour-glass shaped, longer 
than broad; premaxillary forming the border of the mouth usually pro- 
tractile; bones of the mandible distinct. 


Body more or less shortened and compressed; the regions above and 
below the axis of the body nearly equally developed and corresponding to 
each other, and the pseudobranchiz imperfect. Head compressed. Mouth 
terminal, large or small. Teeth in villiferm bands, the outer slightly 
enlarged, without canines; teeth present on premaxillaries, lower jaw and 
vomer, and usually on palatines, also sometimes on tongue, pterygoids 
and hyoid. Premaxillaries pretractile; maxillary with a supplemental 
bone in the large-mouthed forms, sometimes minute or obsolete in others. 
Preopercle entire or somewhat serrate; opercle ending in two flat points, 
or prolonged in a black flap at the angle. Preorbital short and deep; first 
suborbital narrow; the maxillary not slipping under its edge. Nostrils, 


two on each side. Gills four, a slit behind the fourth. Pseudcbranchize 
small, almost glandular, nearly or quite covered by skin. Gill membranes 
separate, free from the isthmus. Branchiostegals six, rarely seven. Gill 
rakers variously formed, armed with small teeth, lower pharyngeal bones 
separate, their teeth conic or sometimes paved. Cheeks and opercles scaly ; 
body fully scaled, the scales usually strongly ctenoid, rarely cycloid; 
lateral line present, usually complete. Dorsal fins confluent, the spines 
six to thirteen in number (usually ten), depressible in a shallow groove; 
anal spines three to nine. Intestinal canal short. Pyloric caca five to 
ten. Vertebree, twenty-eight to thirty-five. Entopterygoid present. Pre- 
caudal or abdominal vertebrze with transverse processes from the third or 
fourth to the last; ribs all but the last two to four, sessile, inserted on the 
centrum behind the transverse processes. Frontals with a pair of large 
muciferous channels which converge posteriorly or are confluent with a 
transverse channel connecting the post frontals, their posterior openings 
close together on the median line in front of the supraoccipital crest. 
Colouration usually brilliant. Sexes similar; changes with age often 
great. Fresh water fishes of North America; forming one of the most 
characteristic features of our fish fauna. Most of the species build nests 
which they defend with much courage. All are carnivorous, voracious and 
gamy. All are valued as food, their importance being in direct proportion 
to the size which they attain. 

Genus POMOXIS. (Grass Bass.) 

Body more or less elongate, strongly compressed, the snout project- 
ing; mouth large, oblique; maxillary broad, with a well developed supple- 
mental bone; teeth on vomer, palatines, entopterygoids and tongue; lower 
pharyngeals narrow, with sharp teeth; gill rakers long and slender, num- 
erous ; opercle emarginate ; preopercle and preorbital finely serrated ; scales 
large, feebly ctenoid; fins large, the anal larger than dorsal, of six spines 
and about seventeen rays; dorsal with six to eight graduated spines, the 
spinous dorsal shorter than the soft part; caudal fin emarginate ; pectorals 
rounded or obtusely pointed, with fifteen or sixteen rays, the upper long- 
est; ventrals close together, each with a strong spine; branchiostegals 
seven; lateral line complete, the tubes straight and extending at least on 
the anterior half of the exposed surface of the scale; posterior processes 
of the premaxillaries not extending to the frontals; supraoccipital and 
parietal crest very strong, produced forward on the frontals to between 
the orbits; vertebree, 18+ 15=33. 

(85) Crappie. Silver Bass. 
(Pomoxis annularis.) 

Body oblong, but more elongated than the next, the depth two-fifths 
of the total length; much compressed. Mouth oblique, larger than in the 


next; profile more or less S shaped; head depressed, snout projecting ; 
upper jaw nearly one half the length of head, the maxilla reaching slightly 
beyond the middle of the eye. 

Dy VIEy 165 A Wikege Scales 7-45-13. 

Colour, clear silvery olive, the sides mottled with dark greenish 
blotches ; on the upper part of the body are traces of narrow vertical bars. 
The dorsal and caudal fins are mottled, but the anal is usually plain. 
Attains a length of about twelve inches and a weight of one pound. 

This species ranges from the Great Lakes southward. It occurs rarely 
in Lake Erie and possibly also in Lake Ontario. In appearance the 
Crappie and the Speckled Bass are very much alike, the best distinguish- 
ing marks between them being the more elongated form of the Crappie, 
the possession of only six spines in the dorsal, and the nearly uniform 
plain whitish colour of the anal. 

In its habits it closely resembles the next and more familiar species. 

(86) Speckled Bass. Calico Bass. 

(Pomoxis sparoides. ) 

Body oblong, compressed, its depth about one-half the length with- 
out the tail; head about one-third length. Mouth very oblique and smaller 
than in the Crappie; the profile comparatively even; fins very high. 

D.VII., 155 Ae Vibe r7 tore.) Scales-on lateraluline,.41 tosaae 

Colour, silvery olive mottled with clear olive green, the dark mark- 
ings gathered in small irregular bunches and covering the whole body; 
vertical fins with dark olive reticulations, surrounding pale spots; anal 
marked like the dorsal; a dusky opercular spot. Under favourable cir- 
cumstances it attains a length of ten or twelve inches and a weight of one 
pound or rather more. 

The Speckled Bass is found in the waters of this Province from Que- 
bec to Lake Huron. It frequents ponds, lagoons, and sluggish streams, 
where there is an abundance of aquatic vegetation, under which it lies in 
wait for the insects, crustaceans and small fish upon which it feeds. It 
spawns in the early summer and is said to scoop out a nesting place in 
the sand in the same manner as the Sunfishes and Black Bass. This I 
have never seen, though I have been very familiar with the species for 
nearly forty years. 

As a food and game fish it stands high in the estimation of anglers, 
though it is not a very persistent fighter. Being gregarious and congre- 
gating in schools, under overhanging weeds and such like places, it may 
be captured in great numbers when a favorite haunt is discovered. 

This species readily adapts itself to life in artificial ponds and is 
worthy of much more attention from fish culturists than it has heretofore 
received, for when taken from clear water it is one of the best table fish 
we have. 

(‘saprounds sivowog) ‘sseq pepyoodg 

s wy a 


It feeds principally towards evening, and the best bait for it is a 
bright, lively shiner or chub. 

Genus AMBLOPLITES. (Rock Bass.) 

Body oblong, moderately elevated, compressed; mouth large, the 
broad maxillary with a well developed supplemental bone, lower jaw pro- 
jecting; teeth on vomer, palatines, tongue, entopterygoids and ectoptery- 
goids, lingual teeth in a single patch, pharyngeal teeth sharp; branchio- 
stegals six; opercle ending in two flat points; preopercle serrate at its 
angle, other membrane bones chiefly entire; gill rakers rather long and 
strong, dentate, less than ten in number, developed only on the lower part 
of the arch; scales large, somewhat ctenoid; lateral line complete, the 
tubes occupying at least the anterior half of the surface of the scale; 
dorsal fin much more developed than the anal fin, with ten or eleven rather 
low spines; anal spines normally six; pectorals obtusely pointed with 
fourteen or fifteen rays, the upper longest; caudal fin emarginate. 

(87) Rock Bass. 
(Ambloplites rupestris. ) 

Body robust, oblong; caudal peduncle stout, almost as deep as long. 
Dorsal profile rather steep, strongly concave over eye. Eye large. Mouth 
large, the maxillary reaching to vertical from posterior end of pupil. The 
heavy lower jaw projects slightly. The opercle ends in two flat points; 
preopercle serrated at its angle. Gill rakers long and strong, less than 
ten in number; six branchiostegals; scales large, those on the cheeks in 
about eight rows; caudal rather deeply emarginate. The lateral line is 
complete, placed high on body and follows the contour of the back. 

Does hk ACN lee ohh. SCaless 5-40-14. 

Colour olive green, with a brassy tinge and much dark mottling; the 
young are pale or yellowish, irregularly barred and blotched with black; 
adults with a dark spot at the base of each scale, these spots sometimes 
forming interrupted black stripes; a dark spot on the opercle; soft dorsal, 
anal, and caudal fins with dark mottlings; iris golden overlaid with crim- 

The Rock Bass grows to a length of about a foot and a weight of a 
pound and a half, though such large specimens are not often seen now. 
It ranges throughout the whole of this Province, and is said to occur in 
Manitoba, but I did not find it there. 

Its usual haunts are dark holes in streams or lakes, where aquatic 
vegetation flourishes, and it is often to be found in considerable numbers 
about docks or timber work, which shades the water. From these places 
it emerges towards nightfall and roams about in search of the insects, 
crustaceans and small fish which form its food. When taken from clear, 
cold water, it is esteemed as a table fish, and when fished for with light 


tackle will afford fair sport to the angler. To the schoolboy the Rock 
Bass is a ‘‘joy forever,’’ for it rarely refuses a bait even when offered upon 
the coarsest tackle, and a good string will always reward his efforts if he 
strikes the right places. 

The spawning season is in May or June, when a shallow nest is 
scooped out on some gravelly or sandy bar, in which the eggs are 
deposited. Over this the parent fish watch with unremitting care until 
the young are hatched. 


This genus has the general form and dentition of Amboplites, with 
the convex opercle, ten dorsal and three anal spines of Lepomis. Pre- 
opercle entire; branchiostegals six; caudal fin emarginate; scales weakly 
ctenoid; vertebra, 13+16=29; posterior processes of the premaxillaries 
extending nearly to the frontals; frontals posteriorly with a transverse 
ridge connecting the parietal and supraoccipital crest, which are very 

(88) Warmouth. 
(Cheenobryttus gulosus.) 

Body heavy and deep, but more elongate than in our common Sun- 
fishes; head rather long; eye moderate; mouth large, the maxillary reach- 
ing to below hind margin of eye; gill rakers eight or nine, besides some 
rudiments; opercular spot about as large as the eye. The dorsal begins 
further back than the pectoral, its spines low. 

DD. X.; 9 to 105A] THES torg; (Seales; 6-400to 46-12: 

Colour very variable, usually olive green, clouded with darker; a 
dusky spot on each scale more or less distinct; vertical fins mottled with 
dusky; a faint spot on last rays of dorsal bordered by paler; three oblique 
dusky bars radiating from eye; belly yellowish. 

It reaches a length of about ten inches. 

I am under the impression that some years ago this fish was found in 
the marsh at Toronto, and also near Hamilton, but of late no specimens 
have been obtainable. It should occur in Lake Erie and will probably be 
found in the Niagara district. Its centre of abundance is, however, south 
of this Province. 


This genus is very close to Lepomis, from which it differs only in the 
development of the supplementary maxillary bone, which becomes rudi- 
mentary or wanting in the adult of Lepomis. The mouth is largest in the 
species in which this bone is best developed. Lower pharyngeals narrow, 

(*snugsad ina 

sayydojquy ) 

‘ssBq YOoy 


i, wat 

, -_, 


with acute teeth; gill rakers well developed, long and stiff; pectoral blunt- 
ish, shorter than head; scales moderate, 43 to 50. Habits similar to those 
of the species of Lepomis. 

(8g) Green Sunfish. 

(Apomotis cyanellus.) 

Body oblong, the back not elevated; mouth large, the maxillary 
reaching nearly to middle of eye; dorsal spines low; opercular flap short, 
with pale margin. 

De Naty lee Lilo. Sedles.. 7-47-14. 

Colour, green with a brassy lustre, each scale with a blue spot and 
gilded edging; fins largely blue; anal edged with orange; iris red; cheeks 
with blue stripes. 

I have no Ontario records of this fish, but as it will probably be found 
in Lake Erie, it is mentioned here. Its centre of abundance is said to be 
the Ohio basin. 

[t is too small to be of value as a game fish, seldom attaining a greater 
length than six or eight inches, 


Body oblong or ovate, more or less compressed, the back in the adult 
somewhat elevated ; mouth moderate or small, the jaws about equal ; maxil- 
lary narrow, the supplemental bone reduced to a mere rudiment, or alto- 
gether wanting; teeth on vomer and usually on palatines, none on tongue 
or pterygoids, lower pharyngeals narrow, the teeth spherical or paved, all 
or nearly all sharp, few or none of them conical; gill rakers mostly short; 
preoperculum entire; operculum ending behind in a convex flap, black in 
colour, which in some species becomes greatly developed with age ; branchi- 
ostegals six; scales moderate; dorsal fin continuous, with ten spines; anal 
with three spines ; caudal fin emarginate; pectorals long or short. Colour- 
ation brilliant, but evanescent. A large genus, and one in which it is 
rather difficult to distinguish species. The form of body, development of 
ear flap and height of spines vary with age and condition, while the 
general appearance and the numbers of fin rays and scales are essentially 
the same in all. 


(90) Blue Sunfish. 
(Lepomis pallidus.) 

Body deep, elliptical, its greatest depth at the ventrals, one-half of 
the total length without the caudal; caudal peduncle short and deep. Head 
one-third of the total length without caudal. Snout short, obtuse and 


oblique, the interorbital space slightly convex. Mouth small, oblique, the 
maxilla not greatly expanded behind, reaching to below the front of the 
eye. Scales on the cheeks in five rows. The gill rakers are short and 
stout, about fifteen developed on the first arch. No supplemental maxil- 
lary bone. No palatine teeth. Caudal fin notched, its middle rays three- 
fourths as long as the outer. The lateral line follows the curve of the 

DD. XS, ta ae 0s 2 Seales 27 -4ior: 

Colour, rich greenish olive on back, becoming paler on sides; top of 
head dark greenish; opercles and cheek bluish; opercular flap rich velvety 
black, a small whitish spot above near its base; side with three or four 
broad darker greenish bars; fins all greenish, the pectoral palest; a large 
black blotch on last rays of dorsal, a similar one on anal; the dark bars 
become obsolete in the adult; no blue stripes on cheek; no red on fins; 
old individuals often with the belly coppery red or brassy. 

This is the largest of the Sunfishes, reaching sometimes a length of 
twelve inches or rather more, and a weight of about a pound. Tie finest 
specimens I ever saw were taken from the Rideau a few miles above King- 
ston. It occurs abundantly in some parts of Lakes Ontario and Erie and 
their tributaries, but I have not heard of it in the northwestern part of 
the Province. 

As a table fish it is highly esteemed, and, in proportion to its size, 
possesses greater fighting qualities than any fresh-water fish we have. 


Very closely related to Lepomis, differing only in the blunter and 
more pavement-like teeth of the lower pharyngeal bones. These bones 
are, in the typical species, broad and concave, specially in the adult. There 
is considerable variation among the species, and it is possible that this 
division can not be maintained. Most of the species have long pectoral 
fins, the suplemental maxillary lost or very much reduced, and the oper- 
cular flap always with an orange patch on its lower posterior part. Gill 
rakers various, usually short. 


(91) Yellow Sunfish. Pumpkin Seed. 
(Eupomotis gibbosus.) 

Body much compressed, nearly ovate, its depth one-half the total 
length without caudal; caudal peduncle short and compressed. Head 
moderately large, one-third of the total length without caudal. Snout short 
and depressed, the interorbital space nearly flat. Mouth small and oblique, 
the maxilla not much expanded behind and reaching to below front of 

(Csnpyjpod srmodaT ) "ysyung ont 


eye. Scales on the cheeks in four rows. The opercular spot short, less 
than two-thirds diameter of the eye, with a whitish margin behind. Gill 
rakers very short, moderately stout, 10 or 11 developed on the first arch. 
Caudal emarginate, its middle rays four-fifths as long as the outer. The 
lateral line follows the curve of the back. 

D:, X.,; 12; Av Il., 10. Scales, 6-42-13. 

Colour : In life one of the most beautiful of fresh-water fishes; green- 
ish olive above, shaded with bluish, the sides spotted and blotched with 
orange; belly orange yellow; cheeks orange with wavy blue streaks; 
lower fins orange; sides profusely mottled with orange. Opercular flap 
black, the lower posterior part bright scarlet. Grows to a length of eight 
inches and a weight of half a pound. 

The common Sunfish is very abundant in all the waters of southern 
and central Ontario, ranging to Lake Huron, which is probably its limit 
for there are as yet no records of it from the Lake Superior region. 

Though rather too small to be of value as a game or food fish, yet it 
affords great sport to the younger anglers, and is by no means to be 
despised upon the table. 

The spawning season is in May and June, the fish resorting to shallow 
water, where the ova are deposited in nests scooped out in the sand or 
mud, by the action of the fins. Over these the males keep guard until the 
young are hatched, in the meantime driving off all intruders and promot- 
ing circulation of the water by fanning with ventral fins and tail. 

Genus MICROPTERUS. (Brack Bass.) 

Body oblong, compressed, the back not much elevated; head oblong, 
conical; mouth very large, oblique, the broad maxillary reaching nearly 
to or beyond the posterior margin of the eye, its supplemental bone well 
developed; lower jaw prominent ; teeth on jaws, vomer and palatines in 
broad villiform bands, the inner depressible, usually no teeth on the 
tongue; preopercle entire, operculum ending in two flat points without 
cartilaginous flap; branchiostegals normally six; gill rakers long and 
slender; scales rather small, weakly ctenoid; lateral iine complete, the 
tubes straight, occupying the anterior half of each scale; dorsal fin divided 
by a deep notch, the spines low and rather feeble, ten in number; anal 
spines three, the anal fin much smaller than the dorsal; pectorals obtusely 
pointed, the upper rays longest, ventrals close together below the pec- 
torals, caudal fin emarginate ; posterior processes of the premaxillaries 
not extending to the frontals; frontals posteriorly with a transverse ridge 
connecting the parietal and supraoccipital crests, which are very strong. 

Two species; among the most important of game fishes. 


(92) Small-mouthed Black Bass. Black Bass. 
(Micropterus dolomieu. ) 

Body ovate-fusiform, becoming deeper with age; mouth large, but 
smaller than in the large-mouthed black bass; maxillary ending consider- 
ably in front of posterior border of orbit, except in very old examples; 
scales on cheek minute; those on body small; dorsal fin deeply notched, 
but less so than in the next species, the ninth spine being about half as 
long as the fifth and not much shorter than the tenth; soft dorsal and anal 
each scaly at the base. 

D. Xs, 130515 sac IM or tones Scales, 411-72" to 6s-2c5 sNbout 
17 rows of scales on cheek. 

Colour, dull golden green with bronze lustre, often blotched with 
darker, especially on head; young with darker spots along the sides, which 
tend to form short vertical bars, but never a dark lateral band; three 
bronze bands radiating from eye across cheek and opercles; a dusky spot 
on point of opercle; caudal fin yellowish at base, then black, with white 
tips; dorsal with bronze spots, its edge dusky. In some waters the fin 
markings are obsolete, but they are usually conspicuous in the young. 
Adults sometimes have all these markings obliterated, the colour becom- 
ing a uniform dead green, without silvery lustre, the stripes on the head, 
however, remaining more or less distinct. 

This Bass is found in greater or less abundance throughout the Pro- 
vince. It seems to prefer cool, clear waters, having a rocky or gravelly 
bottom, and ranges further north than its large-mouthed relative. As a 
game fish it is sought after by anglers in preference to any other, except, 
perhaps, the Salmon, and on the table is highly esteemed as food. 

Spawning begins in May and ends early in July, the season being 
dependent largely upon the temperature of the water; incubation lasts 
from seven to fifteen days. The parent fish scoop out shallow nests in the 
sand or gravel to receive the eggs, which are then guarded assiduously 
until hatched. 

The food of Black Bass consists chiefly of insects, crustaceans and 
smal] fish, but when hungry nothing that it can overpower comes amiss 
At the approach of winter it ceases to feed and lies dormant under logs, 
weeds, or rocks until the warmth of spring restores at the same time its 
energy and voracity. 

Its maximum weight in our waters is about six pounds, but fish of 
this size are rare. 

(93) Large-mouthed Black Bass. Yellow Bass. Green Bass. 
(Micropterus salmoides. ) 

Body ovate-fusiform, becoming deeper with age, moderately com- 
pressed; head large; mouth very wide, the maxillary in adult reaching 
beyond the eye, shorter in the young; scales on body comparatively large; 
gill rakers longer than gill fringes; dorsal fin very deeply notched, the 
spinous dorsal low, its fourth spine longest. 

(“nowmojop sniajdowny ) ‘sseg Yyourg poyynour-jyeug 

(‘saprougns sniadoiwy) ‘sseg Yovpg poyyow-saery 


DEX 2 Or ar el erOlOn Wl. rSoCales, 7-65.10 70-18; LO Or 1% 
rows of scales on cheek. 

Colour, dark green above, sides and below greenish silvery; young 
with a blackish stripe along the side from opercle to middle of caudal fin. 
Three oblique dark stripes across the cheek and opercles; some dark spots 
above and below lateral line; caudal fin pale at base, then blackish, and 
whitish at tip; belly white. As the fish grows older the black lateral band 
breaks up and grows fainter and the colour becomes more and more uni- 
form, pale dull green, the back being darker. 

The maximum weight attained by this fish in our waters is about six 
pounds, further south it grows to a large size. It is generally distributed 
throughout the Province, being most abundant in waters having a mud 
bottom in which aquatic plants flourish. It seems able to adapt itself to 
running streams, and even to thrive in them, but in quiet lakes and bays 
it reaches the greatest size. _ 

The spawning season begins in May and ends at the beginning of 
July. A nest is scooped out of the sand or mud, in which the adhesive 
eges are deposited. These are guarded by the parent fish until hatched. 
Incubation lasts from one to two weeks, according to the temperature of 
the water, and the young bass, after emerging from the eggs, remain in 
the nest for about a week. 

As the weather becomes cold this Bass seeks deep places, often hiber- 
nating under rocks, sunken logs, or in the mud. In the summer its 
favourite localities are under overhanging banks or in holes among weeds, 
where it lies in wait for the frogs, fish and crustaceans which constitute 
the greater part of its food. 


Body more or less elongate, terete or compressed, covered more or 
less completely with rather small, ctenoid adherent scales. Dorsal and 
ventral outlines more or less unlike. Lateral line usually present, not 
extending on the caudal fin. Mouth terminal or inferior, small 
or large, the premaxillaries protractile or not; maxillaries large 
or small, without distinct supplemental bone. Jaws, vomer, and 
palatines with bands of teeth, which are usually villiform, but 
sometimes mixed with canines, occasionally the teeth on the 
vomer or palatines are absent. Head naked, or more or less scaly; pre- 
opercle entire or serrate; opercles usually ending in a flat spine. Branchio- 
stegals six or seven. Gills four, a slit behind the fourth; gill membranes 
free or connected, not joined to the isthmus; gill rakers slender, toothed ; 
pseudobranchie small, or glandular and concealed, or altogether wanting ; 
lower pharyngeals separate, with sharp teeth. Anal papilla more or less 
developed. Fins generally large; two dorsals, the first of six to fifteen 
spines; anal fin with one or two spines, the usual number two. Ventrals 


thoracic I., 5; pectorals often very large; caudal, lunate, truncate or 
rounded. Air bladder small and adherent; often entirely wanting. Pyloric 
ceca few. No subocular lamina of the suborbitals; entopterygoid present. 
Anterior vertebree without transverse processes; only the first pterygial 
or actinost usually in contact with the coracoid; sometimes a part of the 
second also. The posterior processes of the premaxillaries are short; the 
supraoccipital and parietal bones are short and confined to the back of the 
skull; parietal crests are absent, and the supraoccipital crest is very short, 
not extending to the anterior extremity of the bone or even absent. 


Body elongate, fusiform, the back broad; head subconical, long, 
cheeks, opercles and top of head more or less scaly ; mouth large, the jaws 
about equal; premaxillaries protractile, little movable; teeth in villiform 
bands, the jaws and palatines with long, sharp canines; gill rakers slen- 
der, strong; gill membranes separate; preopercle serrated, the serre 
below turned forward; opercle with one or more spines, terminations of 
radiating striz, dorsal fins well separated, the first with twelve to fifteen 
spines, the second with seventeen to twenty-one soft rays, last dorsal 
spine not erectile, bound down by membranes; anal spines two, slender, 
closely appressed to the soft rays, which are rather long, eleven to four- 
teen in number; ventral fins well separated, the space between them equal 
to their base, ventral spine slender, closely appressed to the soft rays; 
scales small, strongly ctenoid; lateral line continuous; branchiostegals 
seven; pseudobranchiz well developed; pyloric ceca three to seven. 
Large carnivorous fishes of the fresh waters of North America. 

(94) Yellow Pickerel. Pike-Perch. Dore. 

(Stizostedion vitreum.) 

Body long and moderately deep, its depth varying with age; head 
long; eye rather large; lower jaw slightly projecting; the maxilla reach- 
ing beyond the pupil. The soft dorsal is nearly as long as the spinous. 

Doli yas eA. Tih. 12 tongs... Scales 0-90-10; 

Colour, olivaceous mottled with brassy; sides of the head vermicu- 
lated; the dorsals, caudal and pectoral with bands; those of the dorsals 
and caudal not continuous; sides with about seven oblique dark bands, 
differing in direction; a jet black blotch on the membrane behind the last 
spine of the dorsal. 

The Yellow Pickerel is found in all the larger bodies of water through- 
out Ontario, more particularly in the Great Lakes and the rivers falling 
into them. Its spawning time is in early spring, when it runs on to 
gravelly or sandy bars or even up rivers for the purpose of depositing its 

(2Unadna UoIpasozgy) “[aLIYOT MOPAR 

uoripaysozuy) * 
Ys JortoyoIg ony] 
: d 

re ee ike 



ova. As soon as the water becomes warm they work off into deep water, 
where they remain during the hot months. 

As it is a deep-water fish it does not often afford much sport for the 
angler, but as a commercial and food fish it is decidedly the best we have 
in the lakes, its flesh being firm, white, flaky and well flavored. 

Under favourable circumstances this species reaches a large size, 
specimens of twenty-five pounds’ weight having been recorded. These 
are, however, very rare, and a ten-pound fish is now considered a very 
good one. It is extremely voracious, feeding upon such other fish as it 
can overpower, and the insects and crustaceans found in its haunts. In 
Manitoba, where I found it abundant, frogs were the most attractive 

In the Lake Erie district and perhaps elsewhere, the young, if of a 
pale color, are known as ‘“‘Blue Pickerel,’’ as this form shows no struc- 
tural differences, its identity with the Yellow Pickerel seems certain. 


(95) Sand Pickerel. Blue Pickerel. Sauger. 
(Stizostedion canadense. ) 

Body elongate, more terete than in the preceding, the flesh more trans- 
lucent; head depressed, pointed. Eye small; mouth smaller than in the 
last; the maxilla reaches to the hind margin of the eye. 

Darcilerto clas ei 7to Tropa Lleneiens Scales on lateral line 192 
to 98; 4 to 7 pyloric ceca of unequal length; all of them shorter than the 

Colour, olivaceous above; sides brassy, with black markings in the 
form of irregular blotches which are best defined under the soft dorsal. 
The spinous dorsal has several rows of round black spots on the membrane 
between the spines; no black blotch on the hind part of the spinous dorsal. 
Pectorals with a large dark blotch at base; soft dorsal with several rows 
of dark spots irregularly placed; caudal yellowish with dark spots form- 
ing interrupted bars. 

This is a smaller fish than the last, rarely exceeding eighteen inches 
in length and a weight of two pounds. It is also less valued as a food fish, 
its flesh being softer and of inferior flavour. 

The range and habits of this species are much the same as those of 

its congener and in proportion to its size it is equally destructive to small 

Two varieties have been described, viz., griseum and boreum, but it 
is doubtful if their distinctive characters are sufficiently permanent to 
entitle them to sub-specific rank. 



Body oblong, somewhat compressed, the back elevated; cheeks scaiy , 
opercles mostly naked; the operculum armed with a single spine; pre- 
opercle and shoulder girdle serrated, preopercle with retrorse, hooked se1- 
rations below; mouth moderate, terminal; premaxillaries protractile; teeth 
in villiform bands on jaws, vomer, and palatines, no canine teeth; branchi- 
ostegals seven; gill membranes separate; pseudobranchie small, but 
perfect; no anal papilla; scales rather smail, strongly ctenoid, lateral line 
complete, the tubes straight and not extending to the extremity of the 
scale; dorsal fins entirely separate, the first of twelve to sixteen spines; 
anal fin with two slender spines, well separated from the soft rays; ventral 
spines well developed, the ventral fins near together; caudal emarginate ; 
air bladder present; pyloric ceca, three. 

(96) Yellow Perch. 
(Perca flavescens. ; 

Body fusiform, moderately elongate, the back elevated, cheeks scaly ; 
opercles mostly naked, striate; premaxillaries protractile, preorbital set- 
rate; snout projecting, maxillary reaching middle of pupil; top of head 
rugose; gill rakers stout; caudal notched. 

De XVes Li, 135° A sles = scales a5 7ohe 

Colour on the back olivaceous, varying to greenish; sides goldeu 
yellow, with about six to eight broad dark bars which extend from back 
to below axis of body; lower fins largely red or orange, especially so in 
the spring; upper fins olivaceous. Like all fish, it varies greatly, the 
yellow is sometimes very bright, at other times quite pale, and the black 
bars are much deeper in some waters than in others. 

This species reaches a length of ten or twelve inches and a weight of 
a pound or rather more. The largest I ever saw taken from our lakes 
weighed one pound and two ounces. It is one of the most abundant of 
our fishes and is found in all the lakes and streams of any size throughout 
the Province. As a food fish, if taken when the water is cool it is only 
excelled by the Yellow Pickerel. During the hot summer months the 
Perch of shallow, weedy waters become soft and lose their fine flavour. 
To anglers accustomed to Black Bass and Lunge it is rather an insig- 
nificant species, but it has this to recommend it, that it can be caught by 
anybody, with any sort of tackle, at all times of the year. 

The Perch spawns in early spring and the eggs, which are very small, 

are enclosed in a long, narrow, translucent, strip of adhesive mucus. 


Body elongate, slightly compressed, covered with small ctenoid 
scales ; lateral line continuous; ventral line with enlarged plates which fall 

(‘suaosaany’ no1Ig) *YOLAT MOTTOK 





off, leaving a naked strip; head depressed, rather pointed, the mouth being 
small and inferior, overlapped by a tapering, subtruncate, piglike snout; 
upper jaw not protractile, maxillary small, exposed; teeth on vomer and 
palatines; gill membranes scarcely connected; dorsal fin well separated, 
the first the larger, of thirteen to fifteen spines, the second dorsal rather 
longer than the anal, which has two spines, the first of which is usually the 
shorter ; pectorals symmetric, rounded or bluntly pointed, their rays four- 
teen or fifteen, their spines moderate; ventral fins well separated, the inter- 
space about equal to their base; air bladder and pseudobranchiz present, 

(97) Log Perch. 
(Percina caprodes.) 

Body long, slightly compressed; head long, with pointed snout. 
mouth small; the lower jaw not reaching near to tip of snout, and the 
maxilla not extending to the front of the eye. Scales on cheeks and gill 
covers, also on the space before the first dorsal; breast scaleless. A row 
of enlarged plates on the belly, which are sometimes deciduous. Fins 
moderately low and rather long. 

DF iOVe, b5 eA. oh... O..  Scalest in lateral line,.92- 

Colour, greenish yellow, with about fifteen dark cross bands, extend- 
ing from back to belly; alternating with those above the lateral line are 
fainter bars. Fins barred. A black spot at the base of the caudal. 

This is the largest of the Darters, reaching a length of about eight 
inches. It is found throughout the Great Lake region in clear, rapid 
streams having a gravelly or rocky bottom. The variety next mentioned 
is probably the common form of Ontario. 

(98) Manitou Darter. 
(Percina caprodes zebra.) 

Similar to the last, but nape always naked; lateral black bars short, 
not extending much above lateral line, these also more or less confluent, 
about twenty in number; a black caudal spot; dorsal and caudal mottled. 

De eV ie, o1A Ah eerOn. SCales.1 Go: 

This variety of P. caprodes is found in the rapid streams of the Great 
Lake region, and more particularly those falling into Lake Superior. 


Body rather elongate, compressed or not; mouth rather wide, ter- 
minal, the lower jaw included; the snout above not protruding beyond the 
premaxillaries, which are not protractile; teeth on vomer and usually on 
palatines also; gill membranes separate or more or less ‘connected; scales 
small, ctenoid, covering the body; belly with a median series of more or 


less enlarged spinous plates or ctenoid scales, which in most species fall 
off at intervals, leaving a naked strip, in some species persistent and but 
slightly enlarged; sides of head scaly or not; lateral line complete or 
nearly so; fins large, the soft dorsal smaller than the spinous or the anal; 
anal spines two (one of them very rarely obsolete); dorsal spines ten to 
fifteen; ventral fins more or less widely separated, specially in species with 
caducous plates. Parietal region more or less depressed, not strongly 
convex in cross section; supraoccipital crest usually present, but small. 
Pyloric ceca, two to four. 


(99) Black-sided Darter. 
(Hadropterus aspro.) 

Body slender, fusiform, elongate; head rather long and pointed; the 
maxilla extends slightly past front of eye; the mandible is included; the 
eye large; gill membranes slightly connected; nape scaly or naked; cheeks 
with very small scales; large scales on opercles; caudal peduncle rather 
long and slender; caudal fin slightly emarginate. 

Dp, XI to XV 5, 11to.13 3 Ay I, (Sito wo: * Scales; 9-65 to, 30-17, 

Colour, greenish yellow with dark tessellations and marblings above, 
and about seven large blotches along the side which are more or less con- 
fluent; fins barred and there is a small spot at base of caudal. Length 
three to four inches. 

As this species is said to range all through the Great Lakes region 
westward to Manitoba, it probably occurs here, though I have not as yet 
found it. 

It frequents clear streams with gravelly bottoms and is more active 
in its habits than most of the other Darters, not concealing itself so closely 
under stones. 


Body rather robust, litthe compressed; head moderate, biuntish; 
mouth moderate or small; the lower jaw included; premaxillaries pro- 
tractile or occasionally joined by a narrow frenum to the frontal region; 
maxillary not adherent to the preorbital; teeth on vomer, gill membranes 
nearly separate; scales ctenoid; the middle line of the belly anteriorly 
naked or with caducous scales; lateral line continuous; dorsal fins large, 
the second usually smaller than the first and smaller than the anal; anal 
spines two, the first the longer; pyloric ceca three; skull short, the 
frontal region not very narrow, parietals little convex transversely, sutures 
distinct ; no supraoccipital crest. 



(roo) Copeland’s Darter. 
(Cottogaster copelandi. ) 

Body rather slender and elongate; head rather large and long, some- 
what narrowed. Mouth small, horizontal, subinferior; cheeks naked; 
opercles and neck each with a few scales; throat naked; ventral plates 
well developed; scales moderate; strongly ctenoid. 

Die tom ell ao tomas ACeL SS or @, “Scales, 6-44) to 56-3: 

Colour, brownish olive; a series of rather small, horizontally oblong 
black blotches along the lateral line, forming an interrupted lateral band; 
back tassellated; blackish streaks forward and downward from eye; ven- 
tral fins dusky in the male; vertical fins with dusky specks; a small ink- 
like speck at base of caudal, persistent in most specimens; a black spot 
on anterior rays of spinous dorsal. 

Length, about three inches. The range of a variety of this species, 
C. c. putnami, is from Lake Champlain to Lake Huron. It will therefore 
probably be found in our waters, though I have not yet obtained it. 


Body moderately elongate, fusiform, but slightly translucent; head 
small, narrowed forward, the profile convex; mouth small,:horizontal, the 
lower jaw included; premaxillary protractile; maxillaries not adnate to 
preorbital; vomerine teeth present; scales large; lateral line continuous or 
interrupted behind; belly with ordinary scales; gill membranes broadly 
or narrowly connected; dorsal spines usually nine, very slender and flex- 
ible, soft dorsal much larger than anal; anal normally with a single, short 
slender spine, the first soft ray simple, but articulate; ventrals well sep- 
arated; pyloric ceca, three to six; frontal region of skull very short and 
narrow ; parietal region flattish above; no supraoccipital crest. Size small, 
very active little fishes. 

(ror) Johnny Darter. 
(Boleosoma nigrum.) 

Body slender, fusiform; head conical; snout somewhat decurved ; 
mouth small, subinferior, lower jaw included within the upper. Gill covers 
scaly, cheeks naked except in occasional individuals; nape usually scaled. 

DVM tom xe. Toto m4 eA ez to On. SCales, 5-44) £0: 55-9. 

Colour, olivaceous; the back with brown tessellations; sides with 
many W-shaped blotches. The head is speckled above, in males usually 
black. In the breeding season the whole anterior part of the male is often 
black. A dark line forward from the eye and sometimes another down- 
ward. Length, about two and a-half inches. This species is common 


through the Great Lakes region, more particularly so in the west and 
north; in the southern and eastern parts of the Province it is represented 
by the following sub-species : 


\\ shtick 
ANS fia 

: E I ie? i er A 88 8 
cou art n/a BA 
r4 y Fs 

Tessellated Darter. (Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi. ) 

(102) Tessellated Darter. 
(Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi.) 

Very similar to the last, but the cheeks and opercles scaly and nape 
and breast naked. Lateral line complete. 

D2 1X. 14; Axo." About iso-scales ton’ lateral line: 

Colour, olivaceous; fins with many narrow bars; back tessellated; 
sides with blotches and zigzag markings. Head in spring, males black. 
A dark streak forward from the eye and another downward. 

This is the most abundant and generally distributed Darter we have. 
It is found in most streams and quiet sandy bays of the southern and 
eastern parts of the Province, where it lies secreted under stones on the 
bottom, or buries itself in the sand, leaving only its eyes visible. When 
alarmed it darts with great rapidity to the nearest shelter and trusts to 
concealment for protection. It grows to a length of about three inches 
and is interesting by reason of its peculiar habits. 

Genus AMMOCRYPTA. (Ssnp DarrTers.) 

Body slender and elongate, subcylindrical; pellucid in life. Head 
slender. Mouth rather wide, horizontal, the lower jaw included; premax- 
illaries very protractile; teeth on the vomer. Scales thin, ctenoid, little 
imbricated, present along the region of the lateral line, and on the tail, 
sometimes wanting on the back or belly; lateral line complete, each tube 
occupying nearly the whole length of its scale. Head scaly or naked; no 
ventral plates, the belly naked. Gill membranes considerably united, 
forming an angle at their junction. Dorsal fins moderate, about equal to 
the anal fin and to each other; dorsal with about ten spines; anal spine 
weak; ventrals well separated, behind pectorals, their spines feeble; pec- 
torals pointed, symmetrical, of twelve to fifteen rays. Pyloric ceca, four. 
Frontal region of skull narrow, the parietal region unusually depressed ; 
the bones of skeleton all slender and thin. Sutures of skull very distinct ; 
supraoccipital crest obsolete. Foramen of hypercoracoid very large. 


(103) Sand Darter. 
(Ammocrypta pellucida.) 

Scales of body not very rough, only those along lateral line and on 
tail well imbricated; nape thinly scaled, becoming usually wholly naked 
on median line; belly naked; maxillary barely reaching the large eye; 
pectorals short. 

DIES corto mie AGe eo to-ro, Scales-om lateral: line; 67 to 78: 

Colour, translucent; scales with fine black dots; a series of small, 
squarish olive or bluish blotches along the back and another along each 
side; lateral spots connected by a gilt band. Length, three inches. 

As this little fish has a range from Lake Erie to Minnesota, it will 
probably be found in our Province, though as yet I have not taken it here. 
It frequents clear sandy streams and avoids observation by burying itself 
in the sand, leaving only its eyes and snout visible. 


Body robust, or rather elongate, compressed ; mouth terminal, or sub- 
inferior, varying in size; the lower jaw included or projecting ; premaxil- 
laries not protractile; maxillary movable; teeth rather strong, usually 
present on vomer and palatines; gill membranes separate or more or less 
broadly connected; scales moderate or small, ctenoid, top of head without 
scales; scales of the middle line of the belly persistent and similar to the 
others; lateral line well developed, nearly straight, often wanting posteri- 
orly; fins large, with strong spines, first dorsal usually longer and larger 
than the second, with seven to fifteen spines; anal with two strong spines, 
the anterior usually the larger, the second rarely obsolete, anal fin always 
smaller than the soft dorsal; ventral fins more or less close together ; skull 
narow, the parietal region very strongly convex in cross-section, supra- 
occipital crest very small or wanting; lower pharyngeals very narrow; 
pyloric ceeca three or four; bones rather firm. Many of the species are 
excessively variable. 

Surcenus NIVICOLA. 

(104) Northern Darter. 
(Etheostoma boreale.) 

Body moderately elongate, somewhat compressed, the caudal peduncle 
rather long and stout. Head rather heavy, the snout bluntish, rather 
strongly decurved. Anterior profile gently and somewhat evenly arched. 
Snout short, about half as long as eye. Mouth nearly horizontal, the lower 
jaw included, the maxillary extending to about opposite front of pupil. 
Teeth small. Preopercle entire; opercular spine strong. Premaxillary 
not protractile. Gill membranes very slightly connected. A small black 
humeral scale; cheeks, opercles and nuchal region scaly; breast naked ; 
scales of moderate size; lateral line very short, not reaching last spine of 


dorsal, running rather high and slightly arched. Scales of belly like those 
of the sides. Dorsal fins well separated, unusually short and small; soft 
dorsal a little higher than spinous dorsal, also unusually small for this 
genus; caudal long, truncate or slightly lunate; anal low and short, its 
spines high, the first highest; pectorals reaching past tips of ventrals. 

De IX One ne le) OG 748 a Calese 4-52-10! 

Colour, soft dorsal caudal and pectoral fins with dark bars and a 
brownish red tinge, other fins white; a brownish red tinge on sides, most 
conspicuous between the darker markings; ten or eleven black bars across 
the back, those on the sides are more or less broken up and not so evident. 

Length, two and a-half inches. 

This Darter was first known only from a small stream near Mont- 
real. Since then it has been found in Gull Lake, Muskoka. In all proba- 
bility it inhabits many of the clear streams of central Ontario. 


Body oblong, more or less compressed, covered with adherent scales 
of moderate or small size, which are usually but not always ctenoid; dorsal 
and ventral outlines usually not perfectly corresponding. Mouth moderate 
or large, not very oblique, the premaxillary protractile and the broad max- 
illary usually not slipping for its whole length into a sheath formed by the 
preorbital, which is usually narrow. Supplemental maxillary present or 
absent. Teeth all conical or pointed, in bands, present on jaws, vomer 
and palatines. Gill rakers long or short, usually stiff, armed with teeth. 
Gills four, a long slit behind the fourth. Pseudobranchiz present, large. 
Lower pharyngeals rather narrow, with pointed teeth. Gill membranes 
separate, free from the isthmus. Branchiostegals normally seven (occa- 
sionally six). Cheeks and opercles always scaly ; preopercle with its margin 
more or less serrate, rarely entire; the opercles usually ending in one or 
two flat spine-like points. Nostrils double. Lateral line single, not 
extending to the caudal fin. Skull without cranial spines and usually 
without well developed cavernous structure. No suborbital stay. Post- 
temporal normal, second suborbital with an internal lamina supporting 
the globe of the eye; enteroptygoid present; all or most of the ribs inserted 
on the transverse processes when these are developed; anterior vertebrae 
without transverse processes. Dorsal spines usually stiff; anal fin rather 
short, its soft rays seven to twelve; its spines if present always three in 
our species. Ventrals thoracic without distinct axillary scale. Pectorals 
well developed, with narrow base, the rays branched. Caudal peduncle 
stout. Air bladder present, usually small and adherent to the wall of the 
abdomen. Stomach cecal, with few or many pyloric appendages; intes- 
tines short, as is usual in carnivorous fishes. 

(‘sdoshayo snoooy )  “ssVgq airy A, 


Genus ROCCUS. (Stripep Bass.) 

Base of tongue with one or two patches of teeth; anal spines gradu- 
ated ; dorsal fins entirely separate; anal rays III., 11 or 12; supraoccipital 
crest scarcely widened above; lower jaw projecting. 


(105) White Bass. 
(Roccus chrysops.) 

Body oblong, elevated and compressed; head subconical, depressed 
over eye; mouth moderate, the maxillary reaching to below middle of eye; 
villiform teeth in bands on jaws, palatines vomer and tongue; the dorsal 
outline much curved. 

Dee a t4s a Lier to 12: -Scales,6-G0-13- 

Colour, silvery, tinged with golden below; sides with narrow dusky 
lines, about five above the lateral line, one along it and a variable member 
below, these sometimes more or less interrupted or transposed. Length, 
twelve to fifteen inches; weight, about a pound and a half. 

The White Bass is found in all the Great Lakes of Ontario; it rarely 
ascends streams, but occurs sometimes abundantly at the mouth of the 
larger rivers. It is gregarious, usually swimming in shoals containing a 
large number of individuals. As a game fish it ranks high, for it takes 
minnow bait readily, and during the summer months rises to a fly well. 
It is an excellent table fish when fresh caught. 

It spawns in May or June. 


Body compressed, more or less elongate, covered with thin more or 
less ctenoid scales. Lateral line continuous, extending on caudal fin; 
head usually large, scaly; bones of head cavernous, the muciferous system 
highly developed, the surface of the skull very uneven; chin with pores; 
mouth and teeth various; maxillary without supplemental bone, slipping 
beneath preorbital; premaxillaries protractile; nostrils double; pseudo- 
branchiz usually present and usually large; branchiostegals seven; gill 
membranes separate, free from the isthmus; lower pharyngeals separate 
or un ted, often enlarged, the teeth conic or molar; preopercle serrate or 
not, opercle usually ending in two flat points; dorsal deeply notched or 
divided into two fins, the soft portion being the longer, the spines depres- 
sible into a groove; anal with never more than two spines; caudal usually 
not forked; ear-bones or otoliths very large; air bladder usually large and 
complicated, its structure enabling the fish to make grunting or drumming 



Body oblong, the snout blunt, the back elevated and compressed; 
mouth rather small, low, horizontal, the lower jaw included; teeth in viili- 
form bands, the outer above scarcely enlarged; no barbels; pseudo- 
branchie rather small; gill rakers short and blunt; lower pharyngeals 
very large, fully united, with coarse blunt paved teeth; preopercle slightly 
serrate; dorsal spines strong and high, with a close fitting scaly sheath 
at base, the two dorsals somewhat connected; second anal spine very 
strong; caudal double truncate; air bladder very large, simple, with no 
appendages; pyloric ceca, seven; vertebra, 10+ 14=24. 

(106) Sheepshead. Fresh-water Drum. 
(Aplodinotus grunniens. ) 

Body moderately elongate, somewhat compressed; head rather short ; 
snout obtuse; maxilla reaches to below the middle of the eye; lower jaw 
shorter than the upper. 

D. IX. I., 30 to 31; A. II., 7. ‘The scales are very irregularly placed, 
about fifty-five on the lateral line. 

Colour, greyish, darker on the back; lower parts silvery. Young 
specimens have dark spots along the rows of scales, forming oblique lines. 

A common fish distributed throughout the entire Great Lakes region 
and particularly abundant in Lake Erie. It reaches a large size, specimens 
of over fifty pounds’ weight having been taken from southern waters. 
With us, however, about eight or ten pounds would be the maximum. 

It is a bottom fish, feeding chiefly upon crustaceans and molluscs. 
It occasionally takes a minnow bait, but I have not found it a ready biter. 
When hooked it fights hard and affords good sport to the angler, but as a 
food fish it is worthless, its flesh being tough and coarse, with an unpleas- 
ant odour. 

The name Jewel-head sometimes given to this fish refers to the oto- 
liths, or ear-bones, frequently called ‘‘lucky stones,’’? which are found in 
its skull. 

Order PLECTOGNATHI. (The Plectognathous Fishes.) 

One of the most important offshoots of the Acanthopteri is the group 
or order Plectognathi. The extremes of this group show a remarkable 
divergence from the usual type of spiny-rayed fishes. 

The Plectognathi are thus defined by Dr. Gill: Scapula suspended 
to the cranium by a post-temporal which is short, undivided and anchy- 
losed to the epiotic. Premaxillaries usually coéssified with the maxillaries 
behind and the dentary bones with the articular; interopercle a slender 
rod; lower pharyngeal bones distinct; upper pharyngeals laminar, usually 
vertical and transverse; skin usually with rough shields or scales or bony 
plates ; skeleton imperfectly ossified, the number of vertebree usually small, 


typically less than 24 (usually 14 to 20), rarely considerably increased. Gill 

(ssuarwunsB | 

sryoupoldy ) 




openings restricted to the sides ; ventral fins reduced or wanting, the pelvic 
bones usually elongate. Spinous dorsal small or wanting; air bladder 
without duct. 

Fishes mostly inactive and depending on their tough skin or bony or 
spinous armature for their protection. 

Suborder LORICATI. 
Famiry COTTIDAS. -(THE ScuLrins.) 

Body more or less elongate, the head usually large and depressed ; 
eyes high; bony stay conspicuous, but not covering the cheek; preopercle 
armed; teeth in villiform bands; maxillary simple; gills three and a half 
or four; gill membranes connected, often joined to isthmus. Body naked, 
or irregularly scaled, or warty, never evenly scaled; lateral line present. 
Dorsals usually separate, the spines slender ; anal without spines; pectorals 
large, with broad procurrent base, the lower rays simple; ventrals thoracic, 
sometimes wanting, never united. Pseudobranchie present. Vertebre 
numerous, thirty-five to fifty. 

Group COTTINA:: 

Body fusiform. Head feebly armed; skin smooth or more or less 
velvety, its prickles, if present, not bony or scalelike; villiform teeth on 
jaws and vomer and sometimes on palatines. Gill openings separated by 
a wide isthmus over which the membranes do not form a fold; no slit 
behind the fourth gill. Branchiostegals six. Dorsals nearly or quite 
separate, the first of six to nine slender spines; ventrals moderate, each 
with a short, concealed spine and four soft rays. Lateral line present, 
usually more or less chain-like, sometimes incomplete. Preopercle with 
a simple spine at its angle, which is usually curved upward, its base more 
or less covered by skin, very rarely obsolete, usually two or three spines 
turned downward below this; subopercle usually with a concave spine 
turned downward. Vertebre, 10+ 23=33. Pyloric ceca, about four. 



(107) Miller’s Thumb. Blob. 
(Cottus ictalops. ) 

Body rather robust, gradually tapering to the tail; head very broad ; 
preopercle with a short, sharp, straightish spine, turned upward and back- 
ward, with two smaller spines below it; skin usually smooth, sometimes 
with minute prickles behind axil of pectoral; spinous dorsal begins slightly 
behind end of head, separated from second dorsal by a deep notch; second 
dorsal about two and one-third times longer than first and one-third 
longer than anal base. Pectoral, ventral and caudal fins well developed. 


DV stom Vil 1654 A. 12 nko. 

Colour, olivaceous, much speckled; sides usually with several distinct 
and rather broad cross bands; fins barred and mottled. Length, five or 
six inches. Very variable in size, colour, and length of fins. 

This fish ranges through the entire Great Lake Region and is abun- 
dant in some of the Lake Superior trout streams, where it is said to be 
very destructive to the eggs and young of Brook Trout. 


This genus is very close to Cottus, from which it differs in the reduc- 
tion of its ventrals to a concealed spine and three soft rays, a step further 
in the degeneration characteristic of fresh-water types. The skin is 
smooth or very nearly so, the preopercular spines small, and there is 
usually no trace of teeth on the palatines. 

(109) Franklin’s Sculpin. 
(Uranidea franklini.) 

Body rather short and stout; snout not very obtuse; maxillary reach- 
ing about to pupil; eye four in head; preopercular spine hook-like, very 
acute; paired fins rather short, the pectorals not reaching vent; first dorsal 
nearly as high as second; dorsals contiguous; anal inserted under fourth 
ray of second dorsal; caudal six in length; lateral line incomplete; vent 
nearer base of caudal than tip of snout. 

DS Val rat as oes cae es elle 3s 

Length, three inches. 

Lake Superior. 

(108) Lake Miller’s Thumb. 

(Uranidea formosa.) 

Body slender and graceful; head smail, depressed above; eyes mod- 
erate; preopercular spine short, stout, acute, curved upwards; a small 
spine below it ; subopercular spine well developed. Dorsals well separated ; 
anal beginning under third ray of soft dorsal; pectorals not reaching to 
posterior margin of spinous dorsal; ventrals not nearly to vent. 

D, Vill. 16; Aji” Leneth, three and one-fourth inches: 

A single mutilated specimen has been recorded, this having been 
found by Prof. S. F. Baird in the stomach of a Burbot (Lota maculosa) 
taken from Lake Ontario. 


Body and head slender; skin naked; lateral line chainlike; teeth on 
vomer, none on the palatines; eye large, the interorbital area concave ; 


bones of lower part of head extensively cavernous; a small but distinct 
slit behind last gill; gill membranes almost free from the isthmus, forming 
a broad fold across it; preopercular spines straight, simple, four in num- 
ber, the lower turned downward; fins large. 

(110) Lake Sculpin. 
(Triglopsis thompsoni. ) 

Body elongate, very slender. Head long, depressed above. Snout 
long and pointed; eye quite large; jaws subequal; mouth large; the max- 
illary extending rather beyond middle of eye; preopercle with four sharp 
spines; cavernous structure of skull highly developed; upper surface of 
head smooth; gill membranes not broadly united; nearly free from isth- 
mus. Dorsal fins well separated; spinous dorsal short and low; second 
dorsal very large; anal high; pectoral long, reaching past front of anal; 
ventrals well developed; lateral line chain-like, conspicuous; skin _per- 
fectly smooth. 

ID MT ae Aa iS. 

Colour, pale olivaceous with darker blotches; upper fins faintly 

Little is known of this species. Specimens have been taken occa- 
sionally from deep water in Lake Ontario, but there are no other records 
for this Province. 


Body elongate, ending in an isocercal tail; scales small, cycloid. 
Mouth large, the teeth various. No pseudobranchiz. -Vertical fins sep- 
arate. Dorsal and anal long; no fin spines. Gill openings very wide, the 
membranes free from the isthmus. Gills four; air bladder present. Pyloric 
ceca numerous. Vertebra, about fifty. 

Carnivorous fishes chiefly of the northern seas, many of them of great 
economic value. One species in fresh waters. 

Genus LOTA. (Lincs.) 

Body long and low, compressed behind ; head small, depressed, rather 
broad; anterior nostrils each with a small barbel; chin with a long barbel ; 
snout and lower parts of head naked; mouth moderate, the lower jaw 
included; each jaw with broad bands of equal villiform teeth; vomer with 
a broad crescent-shaped band of similar teeth; no teeth on palatines; gil] 
openings wide, the membrane somewhat connected, free from the isthmus ; 
scales very small, embedded; vertical fins scaly; dorsal fins two, the first 
short, the second long, similar to the anal; caudal rounded, its outer rays 
procurrent; ventrals of several rays. 


(111) Burbot. Ling. 

(Lota maculosa.) 

Body elongate, somewhat eel-shaped, slightly compressed posteriorly. 
Eye small. The upper jaw reaches slightly beyond the hind margin of the 
eye; the lower jaw included in the upper, and has a stout barbel which is 
nearly one-fifth as long as the head. The ventral is longer than the pec- 
toral, but does not reach half way to vent; the dorsal fins are separated 
by a narrow interspace, second dorsal higher than first; caudal rounded ; 
the scales are deeply embedded in the skin, not imbricated. 

Dol 8 OSmtOR 70 yas, O77. 

Colour, dark olivaceous, reticulated with blackish, the lower parts 
yellowish or dusky; the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins with a narrow, dark 

The average length of this species in our waters is about two feet. 
It is found in all the larger lakes and rivers of the Province, usually in 
deep water, except during the spawning season in the spring, when it runs 
into streams or on to rocky shallows. 

In this Province it is considered worthless as a food or game fish, 
but in the Yukon and some parts of the far north its flesh is eaten and its 
liver is considered a delicacy. 

(‘psojnopu njoT) “qoqang 

BLUE DARTER; RAINBOW DARTER (Etheostoma ceeruleum). 

Head 3#, depth 4}, eye 4 to 44 in head, little shorter than snout, D. 
IX to XII—12 to 14. A. IL., 7 or 8; scales 5—37 to 50—10 usually 5— 
45=10 pores 18 to 35. Body robust, rather deep and compressed, the 
back somewhat elevated. Head large, compressed. Mouth moder- 
ate, terminal, oblique, the lower jaw somewhat included the maxillary, 
reaching front of orbit; opercular spine moderate; gill membranes not 
connected. Palatine teeth in one row. Cheeks naked or nearly so, 
opercles scaled; neck and breast usually naked. Fins all large, dorsal 
fins usually slightly connected. Anal spines subequal, or the first a little 
the longer: caudal rounded; pectoral nearly or quite as long as head. 

Males olivaceous tessellated above, the spots running together into 
blotches; back without black lengthwise stripes; sides with about 12 
indigo blue bars running obliquely downward and backward, most dis- 
tinct behind, separated by bright orange interspaces; caudal fin deep 
orange, edged with bright blue, anal fin orange, with deep blue in front 
and behind; soft dorsal, chiefly orange, blue at base and tip; spinous 
dorsal, crimson at base, then orange with blue edgings; ventrals deep 
indigo; cheeks blue; throat and breast orange; females much duller, 
with little blue or red, the vertical fins barred or checked; young 
variously marked, no dark humeral spot. Length 24 inches. 

Gayest of all the Darters, and indeed the gaudiest of all fresh water 

It makes its home in the ripples and shallows of the rivers and in 
the shady retreats of brooks. 

It is a chubby little fish as compared with the other Darters. In its 
movements it is awkward and ungraceful, though swift and savage as a 
Pike. One of the mildest of its tricks which we have noticed is this. It 
would gently put its head over a stone and catch a water boatman by 
one of its swimming legs, release it, catch it again and again release it, 
until at last the boatman evidently much annoyed swam away out of its 
reach. It will follow to the surface of the water a piece of meat. sus- 
pended by a string. It is more alert in discovering this than a hungry 
Sunfish or Rock Bass, and it can be led around like a pet lamb by a 
thread to which is fastened a section of a worm. (Jordan and Evermann). 

While this work was in the printers’ hands, I took several specimens 
of this beautiful fish in a swift, rocky stream, flowing through the eastern 

side of the County of York. 

LONG-NOSED DACE (Rhinicthys cataract). 

At the same place where I found the Blue Darter, this species was 
abundant; it is probable therefore that it is more generally distributed 
through the Province than has been heretofore supposed. 




Abdomen. Belly. 

Aberrant. Deviating from ordinary character. 

Abortive. Remaining or becoming imperfect. 

Actinosts. A series of bones at the base of the pectoral rays. 

Acuminate. Tapering gradually to a point. 

Acute. Sharp-pointed. 

Adipose fin. A peculiar fleshy fin-like projection behind the dorsal fin, on 
the backs of salmons, catfishes, etc. 

Adult. A mature animal. 

A githognathus. Having the peculiar palate of passerine birds. 

Air-bladder. A sac filled with air, lying beneath the backbone of fishes, 
corresponding to the lungs of the higher vertebrates. 

Albinism. State of whiteness, complete or partial, arising from deficiency 
or entire lack of pigment in the skin and its appendages. 

Alisphenoid. A small bone on the anterior wall of the brain-case. 

Allantois. An organ of the embryo. 

Altrices. Birds hatched in an immature condition, reared in the nest and 
fed by the parents. 

Altricial. Having the nature of altrices. 

Alula. Literally, little wing. The feathers attached to the so-called 
‘“‘thumb’’ of a bird. 

Alveolar surface. A portion of the jaw of a Turtle, where the teeth sockets 
are developed in other reptiles. 

Amnion. An organ of the embryo. 

Amphicelian. Double-concave, said of vertebra. 

Anadromous. Running up—said of marine fishes which run up rivers to 

Anal. Pertaining to the anus or vent. 

Anal fin. The fin on the median line behind the vent on fishes. 

Anal plate. The plate immediately in front of the vent on serpents, often 
divided in two by a median suture. 

Anchylosed. Grown firmly together. 

Angular. A small bone on the posterior end of the mandible. 

Anteorbital plate. The plate (one or two) in front of the eye in serpents, 
with its longest diameter vertical; also called preocular. 

Antrorse. Turned forward. 

Anus. The external opening of the intestine; the vent. 

Arboreal. Living in trees. 

Arterial bulb. The muscular swelling at the base of the great artery, in 



Articular. The bone of the mandible, supporting the dentary. 

Articulate. Jointed. 

Artiodactylous. Even-toed (2 or 4). 

Atlas. The first vertebra. 

Atrophy. Non-development. 

Attenuate. Long and slender, as if drawn out. 

Auditory capsule. The ventrolateral swelling of the skull. 

Auricle. The large lobe of the external ear; also one of the chambers of 
the heart. 

Axillars. Elongated feathers on the sides of the body under the wings. 


Band or bar. Any colour mark transverse to the long axis of the body. 
Barbel. An elongated fleshy projection usually about the head in fishes. 
Basal. Pertaining to the base; at or near the base. 

Basibranchials. A lower median series of bones of the branchial arches. 

Basioccipital. A median posterior ventral bone of the skull to which the 
atlas is attached. 

Basipterygoid. Bones developed in the palatine arch in some birds. 

Basis cranii. Formed by shelves of bone developed from the inner sides 
of the prootics, which meet and form a root to the myodome and 
a floor to the brain cavity. 

Beak. The bill of birds or (in other animals) any beak-like structure. 

Bend of wing. Angle at the carpus when the wing is folded. 

Bicolour. Two-coloured. 

Bicuspid. Having two points. 

Booted. Said of the tarsus in birds, when its scales coalesce and form a 
continuous envelope, as in the Robin. 

Brachial ossicles. Synonymous with actinosts. 

Branchie. Gills; respiratory organs of fishes. 

Branchial. Pertaining to the gills. 

Branchihyals. Small bones at base of gill arches. 

Branchiostegals. The bony rays supporting the branchiostegal mem- 
branes under the head of a fish, below the opercular bones and 
behind the lower jaw. 

Bristle. A stiff hair, or hair-like feather. 

Buccal. Pertaining to the mouth. 

Caducous. Falling off early. 

Cecal. Of the form of a blind sac. 

Czcum. An appendage of the form of a blind sac connected with the ali- 
mentary canal. 


Calcareous. Chalky. 

Canines. The teeth behind the incisors—the ‘“‘eye teeth’’ in fishes; any 
conical teeth in the front part of the jaws, longer than the others. 

Canthus. Corner of the eye where the lids meet. 

Carapace. The upper shell of a Turtle, usually composed of bony plates 
covered by horny scales. 

Cardiform. (Teeth.) Teeth coarse and sharp, like wool cards. 

Carinate. Keeled, having a ridge along the middle line. 

Carotid. The great artery running to the head. 

Carpal angle. Prominence at the wrist-joint when the wing is closed. 
From this point to the end of the longest quill constitutes the 
“length of wing.”’ 

Carpus. The wrist. 

Catadromous. Running down; said of fresh water fish which run down 
to the sea to spawn. 

Caudal. Pertaining to the tail. 

Caudal fin. The fin on the tail of fishes and whales. 

Caudal peduncle. The region between the anal and caudal fins in fishes. 

Cavernous. Containing cavities either empty or filled with a mucous 

Centrum. The body of a vertebra. 

Cephalic fins. Fins on the head of certain rays; a detached portion of the 

Ceratobranchials. Bones of the branchial arches just below their angle. 

Ceratohyal. One of the hyoid bones. 

Cervical. Pertaining to the neck. 

Chiasma. Crossing of the fibres of the optic nerve. 

Chin. Space between the forks of the lower jaw. 

Ciliated. Fringed with eyelash-like projections. 

Cirri. Fringes. 

Claspers. Organs attached to the ventral fins in the male of Sharks, Rays, 

Clavicle. The collar-bone, or lower anterior part of shoulder girdle not 
entering into socket of arm. 

Cloaca. A common opening of genital, urinary and alimentary canals. 

Commissure. The line upon which the mandibles of a bird are closed. 

Compressed. Flattened laterally. 

Condyle. Articulating surface of a bone. 

Conirostral. Said of a bill like that of a Sparrow; conical in form and 
with the commissure angulated. 

Coracoid. The principal bone of the shoulder girdle in fishes; otherwise 
a bone or cartilage on the ventral side, helping to form the arm- 

Costal folds. Folds of the skin (of a Salamander) showing the position of 
the ribs (coste). 


Coverts, Small feathers hiding the bases of the quills. 

Cranial. Pertaining to the cranium or skull. 

Crest. In birds any lengthened feathers about the head; elsewhere any 
elevated or crest-like projection. 

Crissum. The under tail coverts in birds. 

Ctenoid. Rough-edged; said of scales when the posterior margin is min- 
utely spinous or pectinated. 

Culmen. The middle line or ridge of the upper mandible in. birds. 

Cuneate. Wedge-shaped; said of a bird’s tail when the middle feathers 
are longest and the rest regularly shorter. : 

Cycloid. Smooth-edged; said of scales not ctenoid, but concentrically 


Deciduous. Temporary; falling off. 

Decomposed. Separate; standing apart. 

Decurved. Curved downward. 

Dentary. The principal or anterior bone of the lower jaw, usually bear- 
ing the teeth. 

Dentate. With tooth-like notches. 

Denticle. A little tooth. 

Dentirostral. Having the bill notched near its tip. 

Depressed. Flattened vertically. 

Depth. Vertical diameter (usually of the body of fishes). 

Dermal. Pertaining to the skin. 

Desmognathous. United palate, as in the lower water birds (Loons, 
Gulls, etc.). 

Diagnostic. Distinctively characteristic. 

Diaphanous. Translucent. 

Diaphragm. Muscular septum between thorax and abdomen. 

Diapophysis. Transverse process of a vertebra. 

Digitigrade. Walking on the toes like a dog. 

Distal. Remote from point of attachment. 

Dorsal. Pertaining to the back. 

Dorsal fin. The fin on the back of fishes. 


Emarginate. Slightly forked, or notched at the tip; abruptly narrowed or 
notched toward the tip (said of quills). 

Endoskeleton. The skeleton proper; the inner bony framework of the 
Enteron. The alimentary anal. 


Epibranchials. The bones directly above the angle of the branchial arches. 

Epihyal. One of the hyoid bones. 

Epipleurals. Rays of bone attached to the ribs and anterior vertebra, 
usually touching the skin in the vicinity of the lateral line. 

Erectile. Susceptible of being raised or erected. 

Erythrism. A peculiar reddish state of plumage. 

Ethmoid. A median anterior bone of the skull. 

Eustachian tubes. Tubes connecting the inner ear with the pharynx. 

Even (tail). Having all the feathers of equal length. 

Exoccipitals. Two bones of the skull, one on each side of the foramen 

Exoskeleton. Hard parts (scales, scutes, feathers, hairs) on the surface 
of the body. 

Exserted. Projecting beyond the general level. 

Extra-limital. Beyond the limits. 


Facial. Pertaining to the face. 

Falcate. Sickle-shaped; long, narrow and curved, 

Falciform. Curved like a scythe. 

Fauna. The animals inhabiting any region taken collectively. 

Femoral. Pertaining to the thigh, or proximal bone of the hinder leg. 

Ferruginous. Rusty red. 

Fibula. The small outer leg bone. 

Filament. Any slender or thread-like structure. 

Filiform. Thread-form. 

Fissirostral. Having the bill very deeply cleft, beyond the base of the 
horny part, as in the Swallows. 

Fontanel. An unossified space on top of head covered with membrane. 

Foramen. A hole or opening. 

Foramen magnum. The aperture in the posterior part of the skull for the 
passage of the spinal cord. 

Forehead. Frontal curve of head. 

Forficate. Deeply forked; scissors-like. 

Foss@ (nasal). Grooves in which the nostrils open. 

Fossorial. Adapted for digging. 

Frontal bone. Anterior bone on top of head, usually paired. 

Fulcra. Rudimentary spine-like projections extending on the anterior 
rays of the fins of ganoid fishes. 

Fuliginous. Sooty-brown. 

Fulvous. Of a brownish yellow colour. 

Furcate. Forked. 

Fuscous. Of a dark grayish-brown colour. 

Fusiform. Spindle-shaped; tapering towards both ends, but rather more 
abruptly forward. 


Ganglion. A nerve centre. 

Ganoid. Scales or plates of bone covered by enamel. 

Gape. Opening of the mouth. 

Gastrosteges. Band-like plates along the belly of a serpent; ventral 

Gibbous. Swollen; protuberant. 

Gills. Organs for breathing the air contained in water. 

Gill-arches. The bony arches to which the gills are attached. 

Gill-openings. Openings leading to or from the branchie. 

Gillrakers. A series of bony appendages variously formed along the inner 
edge of the anterior gill arch. 

Glabrous. Smooth. 

Glossohyal. The tongue bone. 

Gonys. The middle line of the lower mandible. 

Gorget. Throat patch of peculiar feathers. 

Graduated (spines). Progressively longer backward; the third being as 
much longer than secend as second is longer than first. 
Graduated (tail). One in which the outer feathers are regularly shorter 

from the middle. 
Granulate. Rough with small prominences. 
Gular. Pertaining to the upper fore-neck. 
Guitate. Having drop-shaped spots. 


Hemal arch. An arch under a hemal spine for the passage of a blood- 

Hemal canal. The series of hemal arches as a whole. 

Hemal spine. The lowermost spine of a caudal vertebra, in fishes. 

Hemopophyses. Appendages on the lower side of abdominal vertebre in 

Hallux. The great toe—in birds the hind toe. 

Height. Vertical diameter. 

Heterocercal. Said of the tail of a fish when unequal—the backbone evi- 
dently running into the upper lobe. 

Hirsute. With shaggy hairs. 

Homocercal. Said of the tail of a fish when not evidently unequal; the 
backbone apparently stopping at the middle of the base of the 
caudal fin. 

Humerus. Bone of the upper arm. 

Hyoid. Pertaining to the tongue. 

Hyoid apparatus. Formed by a series of bones extending along the inner 
side of the mandible and supporting the tongue. 


Hyomandibular. A bone by which the posterior end of the suspensorium 
is articulated with the skull; the supporting eleuient of the sus- 
pensorium, the mandible, the hyoid apparatus, and the opercular 
apparatus. . 

Hypercoracoid. The upper of the two bones attached to the clavicle indi- 
rectly bearing the pectoral fin. 

Hypleural. The modified last vertebra supporting the caudal fin. 

Hypobranchials. Bones of the branchial arches below the ceratobranch- 

Hypocoracoid. The lower of the two bones attached to the two clavicles 

Hypognathous. Having the lower mandible longer than the upper, as in 
the Black Skimmer. 

Hypophyals. Small bones, usually four, by which the respective sides of 
the hyoid apparatus are joined. 

Imbricate. Overlapping, like shingles on a roof. 

Imperforate. Not pierced through. 

Inarticulate. Not jointed. 

Incisors. The front, or cutting teeth. 

Infraoral. Below the mouth. 

Interfemoral membrane. The membrane connecting the posterior limbs 
of a bat. 

Interhemal spines. Elements supporting the anal fin. 

Interhemals. Bones to which anal rays are attached in fishes. 

Interhyal. Upper hyoid bone attached to hyomandibular. 

Intermaxillaries. The premaxillaries; the bones forming the middle of 
the front part of the upper jaw in fishes. 

Intermusculars. Synonym of epipleurals. 

Internasals. Plates on the forehead of the snake on the line connecting 
the two nostrils. 

Interneurals. Bones to which the dorsal rays are attached in fishes. 

Interopercle. Membrane bone between the preopercle and the branchio- 

Interorbital. Space between the eyes. 

Interscapular. Between the shoulders. 

Interspinals. Bones to which fin-rays are attached (in fishes) inserted 
between neural spines above and hemal spines below. 

{socercal (tail). Last vertebre progressively smaller and ending in median 
line of caudal fin as in the Cod-fish. 

Isthmus. The narrow unperforated floor of the mouth, between the gill 
openings in fishes. 



Jugular. Pertaining to the lower throat; said of the ventral fins when 
placed in advance of the attachment of the pectorals. 
Jugulum. The lower throat. 


Keeled. Having a ridge along the middle line. 


Labials. Plates forming the lip of a serpent. 

Lacustrine. Living in lakes. 

Lamelle. Plate-like processes, such as are seen inside a duck’s bill. 

Lamellate. Said of a bill provided with lamelle, as in a duck. 

Lanceolate. Shaped like the head of a lance. 

Larva. An immature form, which must undergo change of appearance 
before becoming adult. 

Larynx. A hollow cartilaginous organ; a modification of the windpipe. 

Lateral. To or towards the side. 

Lateral line. A series of muciferous tubes forming a raised line along the 
sides of a fish. 

Lateral processes. Synonym of parapophyses. 

Laterally. Sidewise. 

Lobate. Furnished with membranous flaps; said of the toes of birds. 

Lobe. Membranous flap. 

Longitudinal. Running lengthwise. 

Loral plate. Plate between eye and nostril of a serpent, before and below 
preocular when this is present; its longest. diameter horizontal. 

Lores. Space between eye and bili. 

Lunate. Form of the new moon; having a broad and rather shallow fork. 


Mammary Glands. Glands secreting milk. 

Mandible. Under jaw (or in birds either jaw). 

Maxilla or maxillary. Upper jaw. 

Maxillaries. Outermost or hindmost bones of the upper jaw in fishes; 
they are joined to the premaxillaries in front and usually extend 
further back than the latter. are 

Melanism. State of colouration arising from excess of dark pigment; a 
frequent condition of hawks. 

Membrane. Soft skinny covering of the bill of some birds. 



Mesethmoid. Synonym of ethmoid. 

Mesopterygoid. A bone of the suspensorium. 

Metacarpus. The hand proper exclusive of the fingers. 

Metamorphosis. A decided change in form. 

Metapterygoid. A bone of the suspensorium, or chain supporting the 
lower jaw. 

Metatarsus. The foot proper. 

Molars. The grinding teeth; posterior teeth in the jaw. 

Monogamous. Pairing; said of birds. 

Muciferous. Producing or containing mucus. 

Myocomma. A muscular band. 

Myodome. Cavity under the brain for the reception of the rectus muscles 
of the eye. 


Nape. Upper part of neck, next to the occiput. 

Nares. Nostrils, anterior and posterior. 

Nasal. Pertaining to the nostrils. 

Nasal plate. Plate in which the nostrils are inserted. 

Neural arch. An opening through the base of the neural spine, for the 
passage of the spinal cord. 

Neural canal. The neural arches as a whole. 

Neural processes. Two plates rising vertically, one on each side of the 
centrum of the vertebra, which unite toward their ends and form 
a spine. 

Neural spine. The uppermost spine of a vertebra. 

Nictitating membrane. The third or inner eyelid, of birds, sharks, etc. 

Notochord. A cellular cord, which in the embryo precedes the vertebral 

Nucha. The upper part of the hind neck, next the hind head. 

Nuchal. Pertaining to the nape or nucha. 


Obscure. Scarcely visible. 

Obsolete. Faintly marked; scarcely evident. 

Obtuse. Blunt. 

Occipital. Pertaining to the occiput. 

Occipital condyle. That part of the occipital bone modified to articulate 
with the atlas. 

Occipital plates. Plates on the head of a serpent, behind the vertical plate. 

Qcciput. Back of the head. 

Ocellate. With eye-like spots, generally roundish and with a lighter 


Oid (suffix). Like; as Percoid, perch-like. 

Opercle, or operculum. Gill cover; the posterior membrane bone of the 
side of the head, in fishes. 

Opercular bones. Membrane bones of the side of the head, in fishes. 

Opercular flap. Prolongation of the upper posterior angle of the opercle, 
in Sun-fishes. 

Opisthocelian. Concave behind only; said of vertebrae which connect by 
ball and socket joints. 

Opistholic. A bone of the skull to which the lower limb of the post-tem- 
poral usually articulates. 

Orbicular. Nearly circular. 

Orbit. Eye socket. 

Oscine. Musical. 

Oscines. A group of singing birds. 

Osseous. Bony. 

Ossicula auditus. Bones of the ear in fishes. 

Osteology. Study of bones. 

Oviparous. Producing eggs which are developed after exclusion from the 
body, as in all birds and most fishes. 

Ovoviviparous. Producing eggs which are hatched before exclusion, as in 
the Dogfish and Garter Snake. 

Ovum. Egg. 

Palate. The roof of the mouth. 

Palatines. Membrane bones of the roof of mouth; one on each side, 
extending outward and backward from the vomer. 

Palmate. Web-footed; having the anterior toes full-webbed. 

Palustrine. Living in swamps. 

Papilla. A smail, fleshy projection. 

Papillose. Covered with papille. 

Paragnathous. Having the two mandibles about equal in length. 

Parasitic. Living on, or deriving nourishment from some other living 
thing. Habitually making use of other birds’ nests. 

Parapophyses. The lateral projections on some of the abdominal verte- 
bree to support ribs. 

Parasphenoid. Bone of roof of mouth behind the vomer. Synonym of 

Paratoid. A glandular body behind the ear in Batrachians. 

Parietal. Bone of the side of the head above. 

Parotic process. A posterior lateral process of the skull formed by the 
pterotic and opiosthotic. 

Pectinate. Having teeth like a comb. 

Pectoral. Pertaining to the breast. 


Pectoral fins. The anterior or upermost of the paired fins, in fishes cor- 
responding to the anterior limbs of the higher vertebates. 

Pelage. The hair of a mammal taken collectively. 

Pelagic. Living on or in the high seas. 

Pelvic girdle. The bones supporting the ventral fins or pelvics. 

Pelvis. The bones to which the hinder limbs (ventral fins in fishes) are 

Perforate. Pierced through; said of nostrils when without a septum. 

Perissodactylous. Odd toed (toes 1, 3 or 5). 

Peritoneum. The membrane lining the abdominal cavity. 

Phalanges. Bones of the fingers and toes. 

Pharyngeal bones. Bones behind the gills and at the beginning of the 
cesophagus of fishes, of various forms, almost always provided 
with teeth; usually one pair below and four pairs above. They 
represent a fifth gill arch. 

Pharyngobranchials. Upper elements of the branchial arches usually 
bearing teeth. 

Pharyngonathous. Having the lower pharyngeal bones united. 

Physoclistous. Having the air bladder closed. 

Physostomous. Having the air bladder connected by a tube with the ali- 
menatry canal. 

Pigment. Colouring matter. 

Pineal body. A small ganglion in the brain; a rudiment of an optic lobe, 
which in certain lizards (and in extinct forms) is connected with 
a third or median eye. 

Pituitary body. A small ganglion in the brain. 

Planta. Sole of foot. 

Plastron. Lower shell of a turtle. 

Plicate. Folded, showing transverse folds or wrinkles. 

Plumage. The feathers of a bird taken collectively. 

Plumbeous. Lead-coloured; dull bluish gray. 

Pollex. Thumb; in birds the digit which bears the alula—corresponding 
to the index finger. 

Polygamous. Mating with more than one female. 

Postclavicle. A ray composed of one or two bones attached to the inner 
upper surface of the clavicle and extending downward. 

Post-frontal (plates). The ones before the vertical plate. 

Post-orbital. Behind the eye. 

Post-temporal. The bone, in fishes, by which the shoulder girdle is sus- 
pended to the cranium. 

Preecoces. Birds able to run about and feed themselves at once when 

Precocial. Having the nature of proecoces. 

Preecoracoid. A portion of coracoid more or less separated from the rest. 

Preecoracoid arch. An arch in front of the coracoid in most soft-rayed 


Prefrontal (plates). Those in front of post-frontal. 

Premaxillaries. The bones, one on either side, forming the front of the 
upper jaw in fishes. They are usually larger than the maxillaries 
and commonly bear most of the upper teeth. 

Premolars. The small grinders; the teeth between the canines and the 
true molars. 

Preocular. Before the eye. 

Preopercle. The membrane bone lying in front of the opercle and more 
or less nearly parallel with it. 

Preorbital. The large membrane bone before the eye in fishes. 

Primary. Any one of the large stiff quills growing upon the pinion or 
hand bones of a bird (usually nine or ten, sometimes eleven in 
number); as distinguished from the secondaries, which grow 
upon the forearm. 

Primary wing coverts. The coverts overlying the base of the primaries. 

Procelian. Concave in front only. 

Procurrent (fin). With the lower rays inserted progressively farther for- 

Projectile. Capable of being thrust forward. 

Prootic. A bone forming an anterolateral ossification of the brain-case. 

Protractile. Capable of being drawn forward. 

Proximal. Nearest. 

Pseudobranchiaz. Small gills developed on the inner side of the opercle, 
near its junction with the preopercle. 

Pterotic. A bone at the posterior lateral process of the skull. 

Pterygoids. Bones of roof of mouth in fishes, behind the palatines. 

Pubic bones. Same as pelvic bones. 

Pubis. Anterior lower part of pelvis. 

Pulmonary. Pertaining to the lungs. 

Punctate. Dotted with points. 

Pyloric ceca. Glandular appendages in the form of blind sacs opening 
into the alimentary canal of most fishes at the pylorus or passage 
from the stomach to the intestine. 


Quadrate. Nearly square; a bone of the lower jaw in lower vertebrates. 
Quill. One of the stiff feathers of the wing or tail of a bird. 
Quincunx. Set of five arranged alternately, thus :-: 


Radius. Outer bone of forearm. , 
Ray. One of the cartilaginous rods which support the membrane of the 

fin of a fish. 


Rectrices. Quills of the tail of a bird. 

Recurved. Curved upward. 

Remiges. Quills of the wing of a bird. 

Reticulate. Marked with a network of lines. 
Retractile. Susceptible of being drawn inward, as a cat’s claw. 
Retrorse. Turned backward. 

Rachis. Shaft of a quill. 

Rectal. Pertaining to the rectus, as rectal bristles. 
Rectus. Gape of the mouth. 

Rostral. Pertaining to the snout, as rostral plate. 
Rudimentary. Undeveloped. 

Ruff. A series of modified feathers. 

Rugose. Rough, with wrinkles. 


Sacral. Pertaining to the sacrum, or vertebre of the pelvic region. 

Saggitate. Shaped like an arrow head. 

Saurognathous. Having the peculiar ‘‘lizard-like’’ structure of the palate 
found in Woodpeckers. 

Scansorialk. Capable of climbing. 

Scansorial tail. Tail feathers sharp and stiff, as in the scansorial birds 

Scapula. Shoulder blade; in fishes, the bone of the shoulder girdle below 
the post-temporal. 

Scapulars. Long feathers rising from the shoulders and covering the sides 
of the back. 

Scapular arch. Shoulder girdle. 

Schizognathous. Split palate, as in the Heron and similar birds. 

Scute. Any external bony or horny plate. 

Scutellate. Provided with scutella; said of the tarsus when covered with 
broad plates in a regular vertical series, and separated by regular 
lines of impression. 

Scutellum. One of the tarsal plates or scutella. 

Secondaries. The quills growing on the forearm. 

Secondary coverts. The wing feathers which cover the bases of the sec- 
ondary quills. 

Second dorsal. The posterior or soft part of the dorsal fin, when the two 
parts are separated. 

Sectorial tooth. One of the premolars of carnivora, adapted for cutting. 

Semipalmate. Half-webbed; having the anterior toes more or less con- 
nected at base by a webbing which does not extend to the claws. 

Septum. A thin partition. 

Serrate. Notched like a saw. 

Sessile. Without a stem or peduncle. 


Setaceous. Bristly. 

Setiform. Bristle-like. 

Shaft. Stiff axis of a quill. 

Shoulder girdle. The bony girdle posterior to the head, to which the 
anterior limbs are attached (post-temporal, scapula, and coracoid 
or clavicle). 

Soft dorsal. The posterior part of the dorsal fin in fishes, when composed 
of soft rays. 

Soft rays. Fin rays which are articulate and usually branched. 

Spatulate. Shaped like a spatula. 

Speculum. A brightly coloured spot of the secondaries, especially of ducks. 

Sphenoid. Basal bone of skull. 

Sphenotic. A lateral bone of the skull. 

Spine. Any sharp projecting point; in fishes those fin rays which are 
unbranched, inarticulate, and usually, but not always, more or 
less stiffened. 

Spinous. Stiff or composed of spines. 

Spinous dorsal. The anterior part of the dorsal fin, when composed of 
spinous rays. 

Spiracles. Openings in the head or neck of some fishes and Batrachians. 

Spurious quill. Said of the first primary when less than about one-third 
the length of the second. The student will notice that in Oscines 
the presence of a short or spurious quill indicates ten primaries, 
its absence nine. 

Stellate. Star-like, with radiating ridges. 

Sternal fontanel. A pit at the top of the sternum. 

Sternum. The breast-bone. 

Striate. Striped or streaked. 

Sub (in composition). Less than; somewhat; not quite; under, etc. 

Sub-caudal. Under the tail. 

Sub-opercle. The bone immediately below the opercle (the suture con- 
necting the two often hidden by scales). 

Sub-orbital. Below the eye. 

Sub-orbital stay. A bone extending from one of the sub-orbital bones in 
certain fishes, across the cheeks, to or towards the preopercle. 

Subulate. Awl-shaped. 

Suffrago. Heel joint; joint of tibia and tarsus. 

Supraciliary. Pertaining to the region of the eyebrow. 

Supplemental maxillary. A small bone lying along upper edge of the 

Supraclavicle. A bone interposed between the clavicle and the post-tem- 


Suitacceipital The bone as the posterior part of skull in fishes usually 
with a raised crest above. 

Supra-oral. Above the mouth. 


Supra-orbital. Above the eye. 

Supra-scapula. The post-temporal or bone by which the shoulder girdle 
in fishes is joined to the skull. 

Suspensorium. The chain of bones from the hyomandibular to the fala- 

Suspensory bones. Bones by which the lower jaw, in fishes, is fastened 
to the skull. 

Suture. The line of union of two bones, as in the skull. 

Symphysis. Point of junction of the two parts of lower jaw; tip of chin. 

Symplectic. The bone in fishes that keeps together they hyomandibular 
and quadrate posteriorly. 

Syndactyle. Having two toes immovably united for some distance, as in 
the Kingfisher. 

Synonym. A different word having the same or a similar meaning. 

Synonomy. A collection of different names for the same group, species, 
or thing. 


Tail. In mammals, the vertebra, etc., posterior to the sacrum; in birds 
the tail feathers or rectrices, taken collectively; in serpents, the 
part of the body posterior to the vent; in fishes (usually) the part 
of the body posterior to the anal fin. 

Tail coverts. The small feathers overlapping the bases of the rectrices. 

Tarso-metatarsus. The correct name of the so-called tarsus of birds; the 
bone reaching from the tibia to the toes, composed chiefly of the 
metatarsus, but having at its top one of the small tarsal bones 
confluent with it. 

Tarsus. The ankle bones collectively; in birds commonly used for the 
shank bone, lying between the tibia and the toes, the tarso-meta- 

Tectrices. The wing and tail coverts. 

Temporal. Pertaining to the region of the temples. 

Tenuirostral. Slender billed. 

Terete. Cylindrical and tapering. 

Terminal. At the end. 

Tertials. The quills attached to the humerus. 

Tessellated. Marked with little checks or squares, like mosaic work. 

Thoracic. Pertaining to the chest; ventral fins are thoracic, when attached 
immediately below the pectorals, as in the Perch, the pelvic bones 
being fastened to the shoulder girdle. 

Tibia. Shin-bone; inner bone of leg between knee and heel. 

Tomium. Cutting edge of the bill. 

Totipalmate. Having all four toes connected by webbing. 

Tragus. The inner lobe of the ear; the lobe opposite the auricle. 

Transverse. Crosswise. 


Trenchant. Compressed to a sharp edge. 

Truncate. Abrupt, as if cut squarely off. 

Tubercle. A small excrescence, like a pimple. 

Tympanum. Drum of the ear; external in some Batrachia, etc. 

Type (of a genus). The species upon which was based the genus to which 
it belongs. 

Type (of a species). The particular specimen upon which the original 
specific description was based. 

Type (locality). The particular place or locality at which the type speci- 
men was collected. 

Typical. Of a structure the most usual in a given group. 


Ulna. The inner or posterior bone of the forearm. 
Ultimate. Last or farthest. 

Unguiculate. Provided with claws. 

Ungulate. Provided with hoofs. 

Unicolour. Of a single colour. 

Urosteges. The plates underneath the tail of a serpent. 


Vent. The external opening of the alimentary canal. 

Ventral. Pertaining to the abdomen. 

Ventral fins. The paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins in fishes 
corresponding to the posterior limbs in the higher vertebrates. 

Ventral plates. In serpents, the row of plates along the belly between 
throat and vent. 

Ventricle. One of the thick-walled chambers of the heart. 

Versatile. Capable of being turned either way. 

Vertebra. One of the bones of the spinal column. 

Vertical. Up and down. 

Vertical fins. The fins on the median line of the body; the dorsal, anal 
and caudal fins. 

Vertical plate. Central plate on the head of a serpent. 

Villiform. Said of the teeth of fishes when slender and crowded into 
velvety bands. 

Viscous. Slimy. 

Viviparous. Bringing forth living young. 

Vomer. In fishes, the front part of the roof of the mouth; a bone lying 
immediately behind the premaxillaries. 

iS) 325 



Web. The vane of a feather, on either side of the rhacis, or ‘‘stem’’; 
also the membrane connecting the toes. 


Xiphisternum. Tip of the sternum. 


Zygapophyses. Points of bone affording to the vertebra more or less 
definite articulation with each other. 

Zygodactyle. Yoke-toed; having the toes in pairs, two in front, two 

Zygoma. The malar or cheek bone. 

DEC - 7 1995 

QL Nash, Charles William 
626 Check list of the verte- 
N27 brates of Ontario and catalogue 

of specimens in the Biological 
Section of the Provincial 


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